Brain is the upper large part of our Central Nervous System (CNS) which is also called as Encephalon situated in the skull. The rest CNS is a narrow spinal cord running through spinal canal from the upper level of Atlas to first Lumber Vertebra. CNS is that site in our body which is responsible for the processing of all the information (experiences) and control. All the voluntary impulses are received and translated into action by CNS by brain and this system is called as Somatic Nervous System while the other one transmits the impulses from CNS to the involuntary muscles for automatic responds which are performed by nerve cord and are called reflex actions.
Morphologically brain is divided into three main regions called as-
1. Forebrain (prosencephalon)
2. Mid Brain (mesencephalon)
3. Hind Brain (rhombencephalon)
Forebrain forms the greater part of the brain having olfactory lobes, cerebrum and diencephalon.
Midbrain is small and it consists of two heavy fiber tracts or CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES on the ventral side and two colliculi (superior and inferior) on each side of the dorsal surface. The cerebral peduncles connect the hindbrain with the forebrain.
The hindbrain consists of cerebellum, pons, varolii and medulla oblongata. The unit of medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain and diencephalon of forebrain are called as BRAIN STEM.A diffuse network of nerve cell bodies and nerve tracts extends through the brain stem which is called as reticular activating system (RAS) to screen the sensory information in such a way that only certain electromagnetic waves or impulses reach the brain.
Human brain is the only thing in the entire universe that is ever attempting to explore itself for best understanding of its functions. The brain and spinal cord consist of nerve cells (neurons) and neurological cells (neuroglia). Neuroglia, provide mechanical support to neurons. It also provides the channel to the impulse to travel from one nerve to other through the gap between two nerves (synapse) and to maintain Blood-brain barrier. The another important information of brain is the presence of NEURO SENSORY CELLS in its hypothalamus which regulates the secretion of PITUITARY GLAND and so all the endocrine glands are indirectly under the control of neuro sensory cells.
The coordination of body and brain is achieved by three overlapping processes-Sensory in-put , Integration and motor output. All the functions are performed by proper coordination of brain and body.