On Teacher’s Day


Coming across old acquaintances is a wonderful feeling, more so, if these old acquaintances turn out to be one of your past teachers, it is a bonus. On Teacher’s Day I remember few teachers at primary school levels like Master Dulha Saheb and Durrenajaf Saheb, at college level,  Naqiuddin Saheb, Surendra Kumar Saharma Saheb, Master Anwar Saheb, Hasan Abbas Saheb, Hasan Wafa Saheb, Raghunath Singh Saheb, Ravindranath Kapoor Saheb and at AMU Aligarh, Dr Fazal Mohammed Saheb, Dr Abulhasan Siddiqui Saheb, Dr Irfan Saheb and Sir Brian Mige and Sir Edwin Mendoza at Oxford Street’s HTT College, London who have left their indelible marks on my life.

I’m sorry to miss more names that should have been included in this list. Today I spent a lot of time remembering and praying for the teachers who taught me. All of them would have taught so many thousands like me and maybe many of us students might have become very successful in various fields. We could be well placed, well respected, famous, rich or whatever and a large part of the credit would definitely go to these silent workers in our life. We can never ever forget their role in our lives.

My teachers loved, cared and tried to understand the embodiment of weakness that was I. They  forgave me for my foibles and in the end when many of them are no more I can’t fully explain how I feel their ever presence in my life. The teachers are only supposed to teach but they invariably ended up doing much more than were expected of them. All of us have so many fond memories of our teachers who did in some way or the other contribute to us becoming what we are today. They molded us into individuals to face the world and situations.

I came across a quote somewhere which went something like, “Every situation we face is a learning experience and every person we come across is our teacher.

In every walk of our life we have come across people who have taught us something. Some by giving up a pep and support when it was needed and some who let me down in the worst crucial moments of my life.

Let us always remember with gratitude that, “I do not completely make myself, God makes me, using many others.” I end with the beautiful lyrics of the Bette Midler song ‘Wind Beneath My Wings’ which is apt for everyone who has ever taught us:

…Did you ever know that you’re my hero,
and everything I would like to be?
I can fly higher than an eagle,
for you are the wind beneath my wings.

It might have appeared to go unnoticed,
but I’ve got it all here in my heart.
I want you to know I know the truth, of course I know it.
I would be nothing without you…

…fly high against the sky,
so high I almost touch the sky.
Thank you, thank you,

I thank God for you my teacher , the wind beneath my wings.

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts

The Martyrdom of Karbala and our ‘Attitudes’

Don’t waste your time chasing things that will never be beneficial to your future.

………..April Mae Monterrosa

But the moot point is – How do we conceive our future – the materialistic future or the spiritual one?

If you are sitting with a religious zealot without a rational attitude, he would advocate a future in Black and White. All sermons and advice would he shower about the nothingness and emptiness of this world and promises of heaven where you might be allowed many of the luxuries (of course chaste and pristine) that you have been looking in this world and didn’t enjoy. May be he would enlighten with the verses of the Holy Book and Holy Traditions like the following:

Surah At – Takathur, 102:1-8
(In the name of Allah – the most Beneficent, the most Merciful)

  1. You are obsessed by greed for more and more.
  2. Until you go down to your graves.
  3. Nay, in time you will come to understand!
  4. And once again: Nay, in time you will come to understand!
  5. Nay, if you could but understand (it) with an understanding (born) of certainty,
  6. you would indeed, most surely, behold the blazing fire (of hell)!
  7. In the end you will indeed, most surely, behold it with the eye of certainty:
  8. and on that Day you will most surely be called to account for (what you did with) the boon of life!

And for an unripe mind, it leads to a thought of giving up all the attractions, magical spells and allurement of this world. And the next streak leads to ASCETISM – the renouncing of this world.

Does the religion of Islam demand that situation?

Indubitably, we as Muslims have a clear purpose in our lives and that is to earn the pleasure of our Creator. The positive feelings such as inner peace, joy, gratitude and hope all devolve around that very concept.

“And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).”

The Holy Quran Chapter 51:56

This Surah is one of the most powerful and prophetic passages of the Qur’an. It illuminates man’s unbounded greed and tendencies which have come to dominate our societies. We jump with indiscrete to increase in benefits, be they tangible or intangible, real or illusory. It denotes man’s obsessive striving for more and more comforts, more material goods, greater power over his fellow-men or over nature, and unceasing technological progress.

However, it is imperative here to understand the concept of worship. As we understand, the worship of God is not only ritualistic akin to some choreographed acts of gymnastic. Worship of Almighty includes seeking knowledge, fulfilling the family, social, political and state responsibilities, helping others and performing the regular prayer rituals. And to conform to all those duties, tasks and avocations one has to wade through the rough and tough of hard practical life with all its pathos and privations.

The Holy Quran Chapter 67:2

“And We have not created the heaven and earth and what is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve. And woe to such disbelievers, because of the Fire. Shall we treat those who believe and do good deeds as those who spread corruption on the earth? Or shall we treat the pious as sinners?”

Allah wants us to perform good deeds and be honest. Corruption and Islam can never go parallel. We have to strive to do hundred percent justice to all the activities which are entrusted to us. And to perform good deeds we have to be both materialistic and spiritual. Islam proscribes and prohibits ‘asceticism.’ While the religion wants us to live within our means and be content with the modicum of comforts, it exhorts to improve our economic and social conditions by all fair means.

The conventional wisdom suggests that a materialist wants to change the present for a better future. He deals with the unpleasantness of life with intelligent and self-willed efforts and works hard to attain a standard happy life and prosperous life by creating conditions within himself and his environment. He goes by his past experiences and relies upon his strengths and abilities to safeguard his / her interests. While doing all that he prays the Supreme Authority for a positive response.

The problem with the so called-religious-spiritual zealot is that he thinks more about the rituals and prayers and feels that spending most of the time in these activities would entitle him for Allah happiness. He inadvertently ignores his family, social, economic and educational tasks and indulges in the practices that relate to outward show of sainthood and religious paraphernalia. Those errands and engagements hardly make any difference in his attitudes and dealings. On the contrary, this kind of excessive devotion leads to PRIDE in one’s own piousness and importance which is not what the Islam expects.

From an ordinary Muslim, Islam expects the golden mean where there is fine balance in his spiritual activities and his professional responsibilities. The true worship is if we are honest in all the dealings of life; if we lead a simple life without conceit and arrogance; if we take care of our social responsibilities as a good citizen; if we’re to ready to allow our resources to be availed by our needy neighbours; if we give real respect to our elders and lead a life without hate and work hard for a better tomorrow for us and for those who connect us.

As the famous Urdu poet Jigar Moradabadi has said:

“Mehav-E-Tasbeeh To Sab Hain, Magar Idraak Kahan,
Zindagi Khud Hi Ibadat Hai,…….. Magar Hosh Nahi.”

Most of us busy with the prayer string beads without knowing the Real Truth. Are We but conscious and aware that all the activities of our (honest and diligently lived) LIFE itself are PRAYER….Nay, but we are not sentient!

A few weeks later the Mourning Period of Moharrum is approaching when we would recall and remember the Martyrdom of Karbala. I believe the best tribute of Imam Hussain (AS) and his mission would be to fulfill all the responsibilities of life, especially for the youth, to spend time in their studies along with the traditional rituals and prayers in just proportion. The Holy Imam would also never approve our display of wealth, pomp and power in his name. He would love to see his followers taking lead in the world in all positive fields. He would love to see the youth engaged in activities that would enhance their character. Wasting time is never part of worship or mourning of martyrs of Karbala!

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts

Education should be based on concrete facts.

Some days ago, Shri Ram Shankar Katheria, the junior minister in Smt Smriti Irani’s education ministry had stirred a controversy with his remarks that “if saffronisation of education is good for the country, it will happen”. He enlightened this vision at a function held to celebrate ‘Hindvi Swaraj Diwas Samaroh’ at the Lucknow University on Saturday.

His words : Reporters told us that some people are saying that our government is saffronising education in the country. Saffronisation will happen in both education and in the country. Whatever is good for the country will definitely happen, whether it is bhagwakaran (saffronisation) or sanghwad.He further said: “If our children do not read about Maharana Pratap or Maharaj Shivaji, then will they read about Genghis Khan?”

One wonders if it was the part of Development Agenda that BJP has recently pronounced.

That takes us to the basic dilemma – What is Saffronization?

However, as we fathom the impact of this new Indian coinage of ‘Saffronization,’ it would be refreshing to discuss about Saffron itself. It is one of the costliest spices that bears a shiny crimson color. This delicate fragrant herb or spice  is derived from the flowers of Saffron Corcus. The styles and stigmas of the flower are collected and dried. It used mainly as a flavoring, seasoning and coloring agent in food.

Recorded history of food additives inform that it was probably first cultivated in or near Greece. But now, almost 90–93% of saffron is produced by Iran. Rest of saffron comes from the belt from Spain in the west to India in the east. The saffron of Kashmir is also in demand around the globe especially in Middle East.

I have produced all these snippets about saffron so that readers must acknowledge that RSS or BJP have no ownership or nothing to do with Saffron as such. Saffron habits were introduced and popularized in this world by the Aryans of Iran.

Off late since RSS / BJP captured power, we are hearing a lot and often sensing a lot about the ISATION of Saffron. To the best of my knowledge, it only the color of saffron that matches of Bhagwa color that is responsible about this protracted dialogue. It is interesting that India media is giving equal emphasis to both ‘Saffronization’ or ‘Bhagwakaran.’

It was only a few days in power when BJP began to tinker with school textbooks to bring them in line with its Hindu-centred worldview. Smt Smriti Irani, the Human Resources Development Minister is doing a yewmen’s job to bring back the  the glories of the Hindu “golden age.’’ Undoubtely, those were the glorious chapters and recalling them is honorable deed. Though, as a poor student of school books, I have to confess that being Indian, I know more about Hindu India, present and past, than the Islamic history.

All that I’d learned from the books that were introduced by Congress oriented academics and politicians. On the face of it, there’s nothing wrong if RSS wants to give a new tinge to it. We are given to understand by RSS intellectuals that the Congress governments, all along were ignoring the contribution of Hindu culture and religion to nation-building. The RSS feels that current textbooks as Left-leaning.

Actually, the “Saffronisation’’ of education has been is a campaign to purge textbooks of “foreign’’ influences especially the Islamic period and to promote “patriotism’’ that suits to RSS’ Hindutva agenda. In the name of sentiments of majority, the RSS-affiliated Shiksha Sanskriti Utthan Nyas (SSUN)  has demanded a “total change’’ in school education. Its lead campaigner is RSS pracharak Dinanath Batra who also runs the controversial Shiksha Bachao Andolan,which has earned notoriety for seeking ban on any book it regards “anti-Hindu’’.

Dinanath Batra had earlier proclaimed that “NCERT textbooks will be rewritten according to the aim and objects of the nation so that it inculcates feeling of patriotism among children. Modernity is not westernisation. We want modernity with Indian base (marked by) patriotism and spiritualism.’’

For the nation, interested to learn the real, the writing on the wall is clear. It’s not going to end with a few bland chapters on ancient India.

However, intellectual like historian Ramchandra Guha had advised that the HRD ministry should focus on institutional reform, not communalisation of the curriculum.’’

But now the dagger is out of its sheath. No mincing of words. The waters are being tested. Member of Parliament from Agra and Minister of State for Human Resource Development Ram Shankar Katheria has boldly stated, “There will be saffronisation of education and the country” and termed the process as beneficial for the country. He was speaking at the Lucknow University on Saturday at celebrations of Hindavi Swaraj Diwas Samaroh marking the 342nd coronation year of Maratha warrior-king Shivaji. Sharing the dias with the Minister was Uttar Pradesh Governor Ram Naik who presided over the function.

The Agra MP said: “Some journalists ask if we are we are promoting saffronisation of education. I am saying, yes, there will be saffronisation of education and of the country. Jo acha hoga, woh hoga (Whatever is good for the country will certainly happen) be it saffronisation or sanghwaad (propagation of the RSS ideology).” Elaborating on the theme, Mr. Katheria said the need of the hour was to create a curriculum that would increase the nation’s samman (honour) and swabhimaan (self-respect) in the world. “We kept silent for such a long time and never accused anybody. But today the circumstances in the country are such.”

His remarks provoked criticism on social media and across political parties calling the remarks “highly objectionable and anti-national.” Mr Katheria is not new to controversy. Earlier this year, at a condolence meeting for a murdered VHP worker in Agram, he delivered “hate-speech” against Muslims, which led to uproar in Parliament.

Finding himself in troubled waters, on Monday, while speaking to ANI, Kateria took a u-turn and said “I just said whatever is good for the nation, we’ll accept that; whether its Bhagwakaran or green or red color.” The listeners are no fools Sir!It is worn out trick.

Let the nation be informed – It wants ‘Indianisation’ or ‘Saffronization’ or ‘Polarisation?”

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts

Mango cultivation in Amroha – how to increase its productivity

Amroha is the land of mangoes and carps… it looks mysterious because we couldn’t understand the relation between mangoes and carps at first instance. Although Amroha is an ancient place and has rich history but its cultural revolution taken place in medieval times when Hazrat Syed Sharfuddin Shahwilayat (ra) reached Amroha. He came from Middle East (Iraq) and instructed (as per folks) that you should go to the place and reside there where you will find mangoes and carps (rohu fish). No doubt that he came across many towns and cities before reaching Amroha which surely have carps and mangoes because in north India you can find mango and rohu fish at almost every place from Lahore to Punjab to Amroha. Aam and rohu is very common to most of the towns if not all. So why he choose only Amroha to live?. Surely there might be some other reasons against this common belief to reside in Amroha but this is still a mystery and we will speculate it in future inshallah . Whatever is the reason but now Amroha is famous for mangoes. So this article is written for mango cultivators of Amroha (recommendations are general which can be follow at any place in northern India). About carps we will discuss in some other articles.

Centuries old culture of mango cultivation in Amroha
Amroha has more than 100 types of descripted and non-descripted varieties of mangoes, so its diversity is very high which make Amroha unique place for mangoes. There are so many fruits in the world but no other fruit has same value as that of mango. Some people called it King of Fruits (phalo ka raja). As per my opinion it is absolutely true and it has some uniqueness and that uniqueness is hidden in its diversity. Now see this, you eat apple it has same taste whether it is Himachali, Kashmiri or from United Kingdom, same is true for litchi, chiku or grapes. But when you eat dusseri you will have absolutely different taste sensation than landga or chaunsa. Although all are mangoes having same physiology but taste is different and no mango is superior to other on the basis of taste. All are equally well and I love this variation. Let us have a look for its commercial value and how we can improve the productivity.
Why I am sharing this knowledge – saving mango orchards – a tribute to my father
My farther also loved mangoes and he had taken orchards on rent during mango blossoming seasons. I loved to went those orchards along with him on cycle (not less than 15 Km from my home). He had passion for mangoes, although he hardly made any profits out of it but even then he always taken mango orchards on rent and use to live there in the nights. He taught me many practical things about mangoes like how to recognize variety by looking its shape and size. I was hardly 9 or 10 years old. He suffered huge losses and my mother scolded him for wasting money year after year. I wish I could help him to increase the productivity and help him to save his money with my knowledge, but he is not present today to take my help. But I want to reduce sufferings of farmers who are passing through same situations.
Mangoes – Brief account on its present status in India
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the choicest fruit of India in terms of not only production but also economic importance and acceptability by the consumers. It is grown in around 87 countries in the world but nowhere it is as greatly valued as in India where it covers around 36 per cent of total fruits growing area. Owing to delicious taste, succulence type and exotic flavour it enjoys the same popularity in the tropics as apple in the temperate region. India is the largest producer of choice table varieties of mango in the world. More than 1000 mango varieties are under cultivation in India, each differing in shape, size and taste. But the production share of mango in India is quite low (20.3%) with total annual production of only 15.19 million tons due to low productivity (6.6 tonnes/ha). Despite India has got excellent export mango varieties (Dashehari, grown in northern India, Alphonso and Kesar in western India and krishnabhog, Gulabkhas and Himsagar in  eastern India) it occupies just fourth position in mango export market of the world with Philippines being the first.
Among the different factors responsible for low productivity and low export potentiality,physiological disorders associated with mango is one of the main factor which affects mango cultivation at all stages, right from the plants in the nursery to the fruits in storage or transit. These physiological disorders not only reduce the production efficiency of the tree but also hamper the fruit quality which is the key factor for export, resulting huge economic losses to the growers every year. Therefore, to obtain higher mango production with better quality, utmost attention must be given to solve the problems of physiological disorders.
Details of different physiological disorders along with their management strategies are as follows:
Alternate Bearing: it means trees give fruits every third year (first, third, fifth like this) This is one of the most burning problems of mango cultivation as it renders mango cultivation less remunerative to growers. It causes huge economic burden over farmers and they suffer losses in the form of land depreciation and product stagnancy.
 It signifies the tendency of mango trees to bear a heavy crop in one year (on year) and very little or no crop in the succeeding year (off year). Most of the commercial varieties of north India, namely, Dashehari, Langra and Chausa are alternate bearers.
Reason: Generally mango trees when laden with fruits, they do not produce new shoots. Even after harvesting, if new shoots are produced, they are negligible in number and do not flower in the coming year because new vegetative flush of mango required a certain amount of maturity (8-10 months) for flower bud differentiation.
It can be understand; first year it flowers and gives fruits à in second year new shoots will be seen in march April à then in third years it fruits again.
Moreover, when a tree produces heavy crop in one season, it gets nutritionally exhausted failing to yield in following season. Besides climatic factors, C/N (carbohydrate/nitrogen) ratio and hormonal imbalance also play vital role to cause alteration in bearing in mango.
Management Strategies
·      Paclobutrazol (PP333) @ 4 g/tree as soil and foliar spray in September results early maturation of vegetative flush and commencement of flowering in the following year.
·         Deblossoming of some ‘on year’ flowers and pruning (selective removal of parts of a plant, such as branches, buds,) of the tree just after harvesting will maintain proper physiological balance  between vegetative and reproductive growth and permit ample amount of sunlight to reach the inner area of the orchard resulting in better performance of the tree every year. Moreover pruning also helps to produce some new shoots just after harvesting which may mature in the next flowering season.
·         Flowering in ‘off’ year’ can also be induced by smudging. Smudging in mango is carried out by building slow fires, emitting smoke under mango tree. Similarly, application of Ethrel can also induce flowering.
·         Growers who are in primitive stage of mango cultivation can select cultivars like Amrapali, Mallika, Ratna, Dashehari-51, Pusa Arunima, Pusa Shrestha, Pusa Pitambar, Pusa Lalima, Pusa Pratibha, Arka Anmol, Arka Aruna, Arka Puneet, Arka Neelkiran for commercial cultivation as they are regular bearing in nature. Rejuvenation of old mango tree by grafting or budding with regular bearing varieties are also recommended to convert the alternate bearing habit into regular one.
Mango Malformation: It means improper shape and size of mango which render it less attractive and poor economic value. During last few decades farmers particularly in northern India facing huge problem due to this disorder. Although, it was first observed in 1891 in Bihar but now it is an alarming threat in Punjab, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.
It is mainly of two types: vegetative and floral.
Vegetative malformation is more common in nursery seedling and in young plants. Malformed vegetative shoots assume the appearance of bunchy top with narrow scaly leaves. Vegetative buds growing in cluster, swells and losses the apical dominance. Almost all the commercial mango cultivars like Bombay Green, Dashehari, Lucknow Safeda and Chausa show huge susceptibility to this malady, however the cultivar Baramasi is less affected. Cultivars like Ellaichi, Alib and Bhadauran are totally free from this disorder but their fruit quality being not superior; their use is limited to only for resistant breeding not for commercial cultivation. Scientist from different part of the country reported that a  fungi- Fusarium moniliformae var. subglutinans is highly associated with this disorder. Temperature range of 21-27°C (max.) and 8°C (min.) along with relative humidity of 85% during late winter or early spring is conducive for the growth of the fungi, resulting severe incidence of malformation on newly emerged panicles.
Management Strategies:
·         Application of NAA/ Planofix (200ppm) during October, prior to fruit bud differentiation followed by de-bloosming of newly emerged panicles or bud during January- February is beneficial to control the disorder.
·         Spraying of different phenolic compounds like catecal, cynamic acid, tannic acid during 1st week ofOctober at 2000 ppm is equally effective in reducing floral malformation.
·         Several anti-malformins have been suggested for beneficial results when sprayed on panicles just after emergence (4-6 cm). Sprays of glutathione at 2250 ppm, ascorbic acid at 2110 ppm, AgNO3 at 600 ppm have also been found effective to control the malformation.
·         Application of nutrients likes P & K and micronutrients especially Zn & B just after harvesting are quite effective in reducing the incidence of malformation. Application of moderate amount of N helped to minimize the vegetative malformation while Zn and B helped in biosynthesis of auxins which ultimately helps to reduce the incidence of mango malformation.
·         Removal of just emerged malformed panicles or vegetative shoots at a distance of 15-20 cm below the point of occurrence is beneficial to minimize the spread of disorder further.
Black Tip: This malady is widely prevalent in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. It causes considerable economic losses to the growers. Among the commercial cultivars, Dashehari is the highly susceptible one, while Lucknow Safeda is the least. This disorder has mainly detected in orchards located in the vicinity of brick kilns. Gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ethylene constituting the fumes of brick kiln, damage growing tip of fruits and give rise to the symptoms of black tip.
Management Strategies
·         Establishment of the orchards away from brick kiln by at least 1.6 km in east to west and 0.8 km in north to south direction and increasing the chimney height to at least 15- 18 metres can be preventive measures for this malady.
·         Spray 1 per cent borax (10g/lit) thrice first before flowering, second during flowering and third at fruit set stage is very effective. Moreover, spraying of other alkaline solutions like caustic soda (0.8%) orwashing soda (0.5%) at pea stage followed by two more sprays at 15 days interval may neutralize the acidic fumes of brick kilns, precipitating on the tip of the fruits.
Spongy Tissue: This is caused because ripening enzymes during fruit maturation stage become inactive due to high temperature, convective heat and post harvest exposure of fruit to sunlight which results in the development of non-edible, sour, yellowish and sponge like patch with or without air pocket in the mesocarp of the fruit during ripening. In extreme cases, the whole fleshy portion becomes too soft resembling bacterial rot.
·         Harvesting of fruits at 3/4th maturity stage and post harvest exposure to low temperatures between 10-150C for 10-18 hrs has been beneficial in reducing the disorder.
·         Sod culture with Eragrostis (Spartina) cynosuroides, cover cropping etc. should be used in the orchard to reduce direct heat radiation from soil which ultimately minimizes the raise of convective heat from the ground.
·         Use of black poly-ethylene mulch is recommended for spongy tissue prone orchards.
·         Resistant varieties for new cultivators like Ratna, Arka Puneet, Arka Aruna which have Alphonso  like character should be planted in the orchard.
Fruit Drop: Despite initial high fruit set, the ultimate retention is quite low in mango (only 0.1% perfect flowers develop fruit to maturity). The intensity of fruit drop varies from variety to variety. Among the commercially grown varieties, Langra is more susceptible to drop while Dashehari is the least. Fruit drop in mango is classified into three groups: (i) Pinhead drop, (ii) Post setting drop and (iii) pre-harvest drop (May drop).
The first two drops causes less economic losses to the growers but the third group is most destructive and cause huge economic losses to the growers as the fruits totally drop down at pre-harvesting stage.
Management Strategies
·         The extent of fruit drop in mango can be significantly reduced by regular and frequent irrigationsduring the entire fruit developmental period.
·         Orchards should be protected from desiccating winds (Andhi) by planting wind breaks.
·         Timely and effective control measures against major pests and diseases should be adopted.
·         Growth regulators like NAA and 2,4-D in varying concentration depending upon the variety and time of application can be sprayed. The optimum concentration lies between 10- 15 ppm during the month of April-May.
Clustering (Jhumka): It implies the development of fruits in clusters at the tip of the panicles (A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence). Such fruits do not grow beyond pea or marble stage and drop down after a month of fruit set. Mainly it is due to lack of pollination / fertilizationwhich may be attributed to many reasons such as the absence of sufficient population of pollinators in the orchards (lower bee and butterfly population), indiscriminate spray of pesticides during flowering,spraying of synthetic pyrethroids, monoculture and bad weather during flowering.
Management Strategies:
·         Spraying of pesticides during flowering should be avoided. Apart from this, monoculture in the orchard should be avoided by planting at least 5-6 per cent of other cultivars in new plantations.
·         Introduction of beehives in the orchards during flowering season for increasing the number of pollinators.
Internal Fruit Necrosis: It is characterized by the appearance of dark green colour in lower half of the fruit followed by browning of the seed and mesocarp which ultimately turned into brown black necrotic lesion. It is mainly due to boron deficiency.
Internal fruit necrosis
Management Strategies
This disorder can be corrected by soil or foliar application of boron. For soil application, Borax @ 500 g per tree should be incorporated at the time of October fertilization. Foliar application of 1 % borax is recommended at the time of fruit set (pea size stage) followed by two more sprays at 10-15 days interval which will minimize the disorder to a great extent.
Leaf scorching in mango: The characteristic symptom is akin to that of potash deficiency i.e.scorching of old leaves at the tips or margins. The leaves fall down and consequently, the tree vigour and yield is reduced. It is mainly due to excess of chloride ions which render potash unavailability. This disorder is more common in saline soils or where brackish water is available for irrigation or where muriate of potash is used as a fertilizer to meet the potash requirement of the plants.
Management Strategies
·         It can be checked effectively by collecting and burning the fallen leaves and using potassium sulphate instead of muriate of potash.
·         Acute condition can be cured by 4-5 foliar applications of potassium sulphate on newly emerged flushes at fortnightly intervals.


Conclusion: Among all the physiological disorders associated with mango, none is due to a single factor but all are due to the amalgamation of several factors like genetic factors, environmental factors, nutritional imbalance, poor cultural practices in the orchard, etc. So, it is very difficult bring a affected orchard into a healthy orchard in a single step within one or two years. But proper cultural and management practices like application of required fertilizers at proper stage, pruning of some old branches just after harvesting, debloosming of some flower buds during February-March,application of recommended plant growth regulators at proper stage etc. can prevent the disorders to a large extent.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan – A Gift of God

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born on 17 October 1817 in Delhi when the Moghul Empire’s has begun to decline. Sir Syed’s father, Mir Muhammad Muttaqi, was the personal adviser of Akbar Shah II (reign: 1806–1837), one of the last Mughal emperors of India. At the time of Sir Syed’s birth, the grand Mughal empire had shrunk within the territory of Delhi that included little outside areas also. A known proverb of the time was – “Saltanat-e-Shah Alam, Az Delhi ta Palam.” The rein of Shah Alam, the emperor is from Delhi to Palam. Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor was a nominal king and India had literally become a British subject.

There are warriors, scholars and politicians to boast on record but the Muslim community in India has no one to match the vision and selfless devotion of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He was a social reformer, an educationist, a statesman and the most important voice among Indian Muslims of the latter half of the 19th century.
Today, we are suffering from a drought of statesmen and there is a flood of politicians. A politician follows the crowd; a politician debates the cost of a plan but a statesman questions the wisdom of the plan. A politician tells his constituents what he did for them. A statesman doesn’t worry about what he can do for his constituents, because he’s too busy trying to guarantee a future for his constituent’s grandchildren.

With the pathetic collapse of Mutiny 1857, the Muslim Power in the Indian subcontinent had almost eclipsed. The year marked the formal end of the remnants of central Muslim rule in India. Sir Syed was intellectual and historian also who studied the reason of Muslim’s fall and produced an objective analysis in form of a book Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Revolt) in 1859. In his work he blamed point blank the British for their policies of aggressive territorial ambitions. He boldly stated that the Colonial rulers had little knowledge about the sensitivities of Indian culture and traditions. Initially the rulers didn’t take the book kindly but were compelled to look it in the positive spirit once the deep contents were appreciated in England also.

Sir Syed’s father had died in 1938 and he had to join the British Civil Service as means of livelihood. No jobs were available at the Moghul court. He became a munshi, and in 1858 he was promoted as a senior official at the Moradabad court. His first step in the service of his community was the founding of a modern madrassa in 1859 in Moradabad. It was a unique religious school that had scientific education as part of its curriculum.
In 1864, he was transferred to Aligarh and there he founded the Scientific Society of Aligarh. It was modelled after the Royal Society and Royal Asiatic Society to introduce the Western science and technology to orthodox Muslim society of India. In 1869 Sir Syed visited England and was deeply impressed by the traditions of learning in great institutions of Oxford and Cambridge. On his return to India he set up a modern school in Aligarh and laid the foundation of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in May 1875. The college later became the Aligarh Muslim University.

Sir Syed had realized that the feelings of hate against British were harming the general interests of Muslim Community. Muslims were unwilling to learn English and they were lagging behind their countrymen in every sphere. He took it upon himself to fill the gap between the British and the Muslim community. There was a need for reforms if Muslim community had to progress. Particular emphasis on education was sine qua non. Sir Syed’s greatest gift to his community was his emphasis on education.

It is the fact of history that Sir Syed was critical of Indian National Congress. He was afraid that Muslims would be marginalized in country life if they joined Congress. In one his lectures he strongly exhorted his community in these words:

“When you (Muslims) shall have fully acquired education, and true education shall have made its home in your hearts, then you will know what rights you can legitimately demand of the British Government. And the result of this will be that you will also obtain honorable positions in the Government, and will acquire wealth in the higher ranks of trade.”

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts

Yeh Ummat Khurafat Men Kho Gayee

Modern Science is mapping the human brain waves today and we, the Muslims, are put to sound sleep. Alas, our sleep has been stretched too long and too deep. ‘The story of Seven Sleepers’, in our context is transmuted into a pathetic narrative. We are meandering down a slope that is leading to an abyss of ignorance. But why it is happening? Some facts of negative progress or retrogress are simple to parody but hard to comprehend; some realities are too stubborn and stare directly into our faces; some lapses and misfortunes compel us to look back into retrospect and some chapters of our own history inspire to brood why the darker nights of ignorance have so horribly enveloped the believers of ‘Towheed’? What has happened to our faculties of observation, analysis and our perceptions? Why are we rendered so intellectually numb and why are we failing to envision for the new dawn? The tragedy that the cohesive whole of our Ummah is highlighted in the following paragraph that I had picked from some periodical long ago:
“In 2005 Harvard University produced more scientific papers than 17 Arabic-speaking countries combined. The world’s 1.6 billion Muslims have produced only two Nobel laureates in chemistry and physics. Both moved to the West: the only living one, the chemist Ahmed Hassan Zewail, is at the California Institute of Technology. By contrast Jews, outnumbered 100 to one by Muslims, have won 79. The 57 countries in the ‘Organization of the Islamic Conference’ spend a puny 0.81% of GDP on research and development, about a third of the world average. America, which has the world’s biggest science budget, spends 2.9%; Israel lavishes 4.4%.”

The chasm between a Muslim and Knowledge, especially in the field of the applied Sciences, is too wide. However, it would be a futile effort if we keep crying over the split milk. Let us try to explore the causes and remedies.”

The Islam as introduced by the Prophet Hazrat Mohammed Mustafa (PBUH) was a doctrine that was concomitant of Progress. Progress is fruition of Knowledge and Science is nothing but Knowledge.

What is Science?

To define it in nutshell – “Science is the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.”
The word science comes from the Latin “SCIENTIA,” meaning knowledge. How do we define science? According to experts of diction and philosophy, science is “knowledge attained through study or practice covering general truths that are obtained and tested through reliable and repeat processes. These methods are purely concerned with the physical world.” What does that really mean? Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena.

Science as defined above is sometimes called ‘Pure Science.’ The application of research evolved from science in relation to human needs is known as ‘Applied Science’ It could be further classified into Natural Sciences which cover the study of natural world and Social Science that encompass the systematic study of human behavior and society.

The pertinent question challenging us today – Is Islam inimical or hostile to Science?

If you could afford to forget the blood curdling and gun trotting fanatic terrorists with black tunics and hoods and imagine the clear advice our Prophet (PBUH) had delivered more than fourteen hundred years ago, we would realize that he had emphasized that the material world can only be understood through scientific inquiry. Islamic culture is a knowledge based culture. He valued science over extensive worship and declared: ‘An hour’s study of nature is better than a year’s prayer’. He had directed his followers to ‘listen to the words of the scientist and instill unto others the lessons of science’ and ‘go even as far as China in the quest of knowledge’.

Today it might sound odd to our westernized generation but Islam had actually encouraged the pursuit of scientific knowledge right from its inception. The Holy Book places immense emphasis on scientific knowledge. The first Quranic word revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is ‘Read’. It refers, amongst other forms of readings, to reading the ‘signs of God’ or the systematic study of nature. It is a basic tenet of Muslim belief that the material world is full of signs of God; and these signs can only be deciphered through rational and objective inquiry.

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts

When did you write the last letter ?

When did you write the last letter ?

When did you write the last letter ?

Mirza Ghalib has written: “Chand Tasweer-e-butan chand haseenon ke ‘khuttot’, baad marne ke mere ghar se yeh samaan nikla.” Few pictures of statues and letters of cute damsels were all that could be recovered from my house after my death. It was true till the latest electronic gadgets stormed the new world and changed the entire game of correspondence. Now we type and press the buttons of mobiles; we write, we save and we delete. If Ghalib comes back to life today, he has to retrieve his mails and look for his non-existent Facebook. We no more write anything. Pen is used for signatures and Inkpot is a nuisance.

Calligraphy has always been an art classes. However, people were known and respected for their style of handwriting. The receivers used to recognize the sender with the writing style of address on envelope or postcard. A crow calling in the morning from the branch of a neem tree in the ‘sahan’ or wall of the house would be a presage of the arrival of a letter. The family would wait for the postman with abated breath. The door-call of a postman was music for ears. Fifteen minutes before the expected arrival of the postman, a kid or a retired male member of the family would wait outside for him. ‘No letter’ would not bring tears but a shock that would take minutes if not hours to recover.

Times have changed. Ask a youth when was it that the last time he had sent someone he loved a hand-written letter? In this age of instant and fast constant connectivity of text messaging, letter writing has all but a forgotten and forsaken errand. Who has the time for it? “What is the fun in writing a letter with your pen? Why to waste time when we have better options available?” And yet, perhaps because of this indifference only, the art of the ‘written letter’ is even more important these days.

Electronic Greeting Cards have eliminated to need to scribble one’s signature. The new timers don’t realize that writing letters is a wonderful way to reflect and connect. They did never get the feel of the immense happiness it gives to receive a handwritten letter. Taking the time to sit down and write to a friend helps to slow down the pace of hectic with positive reliefs. It becomes a spiritual experience. New initiatives and new prospective develop while you write a letter.

E-mails, impersonal telephonic talk or even Skype dialogues reflect the rush of life and the inability to pause. It proves to ourselves how smart and fast we’re while the flip side of these means demonstrate how least we think, care or bother about others.
May I suggest you to sit down; spend some time with pen and paper; think of a friend or relative- may be your own parent; someone who had been a great benefactor of you once; someone who had inspired you in life; someone who might have shaped your life; someone you have loved and forgotten and try to write a few lines. The tears in your eyes would compel you to write more.

Think of the letters written by Mirza Ghalib. How poor Urdu language would have been without his letters. How much  knowledge our beloved Prime Minister Pandit Nehru had given to the world with his ‘Letters To My Daughter Indra Gandhi?’ You must be aware that every letter of Mahatama Gandhi was a new message, a clarion call to improve the dignity of human race. Letter writing is an emotional, spiritual, intellectual and pleasing activity. Had they used e-mails, some virus by now might have destroyed the greatest treasure of our national lives.

Electronic letters play havoc with emotions. BTW becomes by the way, TKA becomes tum kab aoge and FF becomes facebook friend. Grammar is thrown out the window and etiquette is gracing the dustbin of manners, too archaic now.

Reading old letters opens the floodgate of nostalgia, a pleasant break from excruciating painful of humdrum life. Don’t underestimate the power of the pen. Find a comfortable place and write the author of this article if want a genuine and lovely response !

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts


Brain is the upper large part of our Central Nervous System (CNS) which is also called as Encephalon situated in the skull. The rest CNS is a narrow spinal cord running through spinal canal from the upper level of Atlas to first Lumber Vertebra. CNS is that site in our body which is responsible for the processing of all the information (experiences) and control. All the voluntary impulses are received and translated into action by CNS by brain and this system is called as Somatic Nervous System while the other one transmits the impulses from CNS to the involuntary muscles for automatic responds which are performed by nerve cord and are called reflex actions.

Midline view of the brain

Midline view of the brain

Morphologically brain is divided into three main regions called as-

1. Forebrain (prosencephalon)
2. Mid Brain (mesencephalon)
3. Hind Brain (rhombencephalon)

Forebrain forms the greater part of the brain having olfactory lobes, cerebrum and diencephalon.

Midbrain is small and it consists of two heavy fiber tracts or CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES on the ventral side and two colliculi (superior and inferior) on each side of the dorsal surface. The cerebral peduncles connect the hindbrain with the forebrain.

The hindbrain consists of cerebellum, pons, varolii and medulla oblongata. The unit of medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain and diencephalon of forebrain are called as BRAIN STEM.A diffuse network of nerve cell bodies and nerve tracts extends through the brain stem which is called as reticular activating system (RAS) to screen the sensory information in such a way that only certain electromagnetic waves or impulses reach the brain.

Human brain is the only thing in the entire universe that is ever attempting to explore itself for best understanding of its functions. The brain and spinal cord consist of nerve cells (neurons) and neurological cells (neuroglia). Neuroglia, provide mechanical support to neurons. It also provides the channel to the impulse to travel from one nerve to other through the gap between two nerves (synapse) and to maintain Blood-brain barrier. The another important information of brain is the presence of NEURO SENSORY CELLS in its hypothalamus which regulates the secretion of PITUITARY GLAND and so all the endocrine glands are indirectly under the control of neuro sensory cells.

The coordination of body and brain is achieved by three overlapping processes-Sensory in-put , Integration and motor output. All the functions are performed by proper coordination of brain and body.

Dor Peechey Ki Taraf Aiy Gardish-e-ayyam Too

As it appeared at “We are Aligs” wall…

It was the first Shab-e-barat of my father away from home at the portals of ‘Khan Zaman Hostel’ Minto Circle, AMU Aligarh. Yes, it was Minto Circle and not ‘Syedana Tahir Saifuddin High School’ then. He was very fond of fireworks. Unfortunately my uncle who was a very tall handsome boy, very popular among all segments of society including the aristocratic Pardanasheens died young and my father, the only son ipso facto became the ‘apple of the eye’ of the family. He was much sought after and pampered child. His absence at such an auspicious festival was deeply felt by everyone in family, near relations and the Mohalla. He has left a few days back for Aligarh and my grandfather didn’t feel it prudent to give his affection the upper hand and call him back. It was if all by history and maths working in tandem, in the year 1927.

Discretion is better than valor and where there is will there is way. A rich collection of fire-works was gathered that included Anar, Falak Shigaph (batasha), Nar-al- Surra (narhi) and Raqqasa (chakai that flares upon flour in swift rouds). An attendant was arranged with a horse to take these Shab-e-barat Atankwad material to AMU. He arrived the AMU via Khurja as my grandfather had instructed him to buy some “Gajar ka Achar’ for my father from there. This whole story was narrated to us by my father, his friends and it’s a part of our family’s treasured history. Please forgive me for any exaggeration which is unintentional.

The hidden agenda of my grandfather, as the Sayees was told, to leave the horse at the hostel at the disposal of his son. Sayees tied the horse to the tree still graces the compound of Khan Zaman with some water, chane and fodder. The guest relaxed and waited for the warden. When the warden, as name referred vaguely was some Haseeb Saheb, arrived in the evening the messanger paid his respects and expressed the purpose of his visit and revealed the intentions of my grandfather. He said the warden – “Agar whan jagah ne ho mere dost Aftab ke doluat kadey par chale jana……….”

The soft and sophisticated warden got the first shock then relaxed. He gave a great smile and called the Monitor. First he confiscated the ATISHBAZI and gave it in the safe custody of monitor and instructed him not to give it to my father till the night of Shab-e-barat. “The fireworks would be played in my presence.” About keeping the horse and attendant at ‘Khan Zaman’, he appreciated the idea and wrote the following letter to my grandfather. The letter said:

“Janab Qiblaey Hajat wa Kaabeay maradat Syed Aley Ahmed Saheb dam Inayat-o-kum. Bad salam-o-niyaz ke wazeh ho keh harchand barkhurdar Ata Hussain ba-adab, munkasir mizaj aour honahar talib-e-ilm hain magar afsos taghaurryat waqt ne un tamam besh baha qadron ko pamal kar diya jo hamaraey azeem bahadur-o- dana peshrau qaim kar gaye the. Yaqeenan buzurg-e-mohatram ke ali zehan men dour-e- ‘Jamia Khiljiya’ aour ‘Madarsat-Kamali wa Jamali’ waqey Mehrauli, Delhi ke rayej dastoor rahe honge. Wahan talib-e-ilm Iran-o-Tooran-Faran se warid hote the aour Asp (horse) wa Khaddam unke saath hua karte the. Afsos woh riwayat sab ab dastan-e-parinah ho gayeen aour aaj ki haqeeqat yeh hai aksar nawabbin ke roshan chiraghon ko hostel ki jagah ki qillat ka saman hai. Mai mafi chahta hoon aour aapke namabar ko ba-halet-afsurdah wapis karta hoon. Ummeed hai huzur duaon men yad raken ge.
Khuda Nigehdar, Ahqar Haseeb ba muqam Khan Zaman Aligarh.
And now I add…………“Dor peechey kee taraf ay gardishe ayyam too

Naim Naqvi

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

More Posts

Presentation and Success

In the poem “A Psalm of Life”, H.W. Longfellow(1807-1882) expressed that-

“Lives of great men all remind us
We can make our lives sublime
And departing, leave behind us
Footprints of the sands of time.”

Certainly the real success in life is possible only by virtue of the powers of discrimination, decision, devotion and dedication that can make us able to leave behind us footprints on the sand of time to achieve the destination (goal of success). See as the content of the course of struggle is backbone of success; equally the presentation of the content of right things at right time in a right way is the body of Success. Both are part and parcel to each other. The great success is not possible without efforts to rise but is always possible by extra ordinary efforts and struggle to rise in the right direction to explore the miracle.

Allama Iqbal says-
“Be mojizah duniya mein ubharti nahin qaume
Jo zarb-e-kaleemi nahin rakkhte, wo hunar kya?”

In other words we can say-
“No success is possible without will
No miracle may happen without struggle.”

The efforts and their unique presentation provide the proper success in all the spheres of life. Suppose, take the example of examinees and an examiner. All the examinees are answering the questions with correct contents of the matter but someone gets better marks than the other. The reason is the better presentation of the same content before the examiner. Take another example of food. If the same food is served by different people in different ways, the better presentation would be liked more. And see the monotonous way of presentation cannot make any valuable difference. Someone can deny it, but as a matter of fact, the presentation of the contents of the matter , matters for achieving the success in life.

As a biology student I can say if the matters of life are considered with respect to our body functions and physiology of the brain, it is clear that the brain is responsible for all the functions and deeds done by the body. All the decisions, determinations and practices are the acts performed by our body parts but by the order of our brain and nervous system. The aspiration and intensity to perform any act depends upon the enzymatic actions and by the governance of the brain. Sometimes some of the feelings or the events make us excited, aggressive, calm or imbalanced, sweet or harsh. but the body is the same. Have we ever thought, why do we get angry by hearing a few abusive things about us and sometimes are very sweet and sublime? The reason is the God gifted physiology of our brain and the responses of the body parts. The nitrogenous organic compounds which are called enzymes perform the key role to initiate, motivate, retardate or stop the biochemical processes making body to respond for the electromagnetic waves(impulses) transmitted by the brain to act accordingly by the motor cells of the body organs.

Presentation is the product of inherited traits and the acquired behaviour. It is developed by the interaction of personal character with the environment that imparts the positive and negative impacts of all the living, non-living and abstract things on the personality. Good friends that may be parents, brothers, sisters, cousins or companions, books and journals all are responsible to induce the positive vibrations or invisible energy in the form of electromagnetic waves in your brain that stimulates the specific faculties of brain and the brain cells perform the diagnostic and prognostic functions to think and pass the relevant orders to the concerned organs of the body to respond. The presentation of positive responds makes up your personality impressive and successful. So there is the important role of your friends all along your life for the success.

The creator of all the things of universe made the brain consisting of fore-brain, mid and hind-brain but divided into two equal and symmetrical left and right halves.

Physiologically left half of brain is concerned to evaluate the things in the parts and then as a whole. The God provided the complicated mechanism to think for rational, logical, sequential, analytical and objective thinking to solve the problems. The left half of brain is also responsible to control the speech, language and analyse the matters as calculation of maths and physics, chemistry and the other sciences of arts. The right half of the brain is mostly concerned with the first observation of the whole then in parts. It governs creativity, intuition, holistic, random and subjective thinking.

If you want to get success in your right decisions, you have to put it in the representation of your attitude towards decisions which will first be initiated in the left brain as rational and logical thinking and then in the right half of brain for creativity so that differently distinct creativity can get the powerful ability of presentation in the system of the body organs. So we see that the left and right halves of the brain, nervous system and the body organs establish a balanced coordination between their acts. The brain sends the impulses in the form of electromagnetic waves to the concerned body organs to act accurately according to the commands so that the creativity and logical thinking can give the shape to the idea for the efforts to raise and get success.

The success is possible only by efforts and the heights can be achieved by efforts in the right direction. Presentation of efforts is the process of struggle to reach the goal. The heights can be achieved by gradual raise by gradually accelerated stimulation and governance of the brain for the body. Gain of heights for gradual raise is a process of presentation of good coordination of all the faculties of brain and body which is really the struggle for success.

If the heights are gained without raise, are not real heights but imaginary and inverted, so can’t be called as success because it is not the result of the presentation of proper coordination of brain, body and presentation of acts. If we have the aim to reach a goal and present our best efforts, we get success. If no evident success is acquired even by hard efforts, no problem at all, efforts themselves are success because our actions are in perfect coordination with all the physiological and biochemical processes in the body to present the acts in the favour of brain to rise for getting the success. We should do our best efforts as our brain commands and produce the best presentation of efforts to rise and get success and see if you have determination with dedication, your presentation would make you deserving for your sure success.