On Teacher’s Day

teacher

Coming across old acquaintances is a wonderful feeling, more so, if these old acquaintances turn out to be one of your past teachers, it is a bonus. On Teacher’s Day I remember few teachers at primary school levels like Master Dulha Saheb and Durrenajaf Saheb, at college level,  Naqiuddin Saheb, Surendra Kumar Saharma Saheb, Master Anwar Saheb, Hasan Abbas Saheb, Hasan Wafa Saheb, Raghunath Singh Saheb, Ravindranath Kapoor Saheb and at AMU Aligarh, Dr Fazal Mohammed Saheb, Dr Abulhasan Siddiqui Saheb, Dr Irfan Saheb and Sir Brian Mige and Sir Edwin Mendoza at Oxford Street’s HTT College, London who have left their indelible marks on my life.

I’m sorry to miss more names that should have been included in this list. Today I spent a lot of time remembering and praying for the teachers who taught me. All of them would have taught so many thousands like me and maybe many of us students might have become very successful in various fields. We could be well placed, well respected, famous, rich or whatever and a large part of the credit would definitely go to these silent workers in our life. We can never ever forget their role in our lives.

My teachers loved, cared and tried to understand the embodiment of weakness that was I. They  forgave me for my foibles and in the end when many of them are no more I can’t fully explain how I feel their ever presence in my life. The teachers are only supposed to teach but they invariably ended up doing much more than were expected of them. All of us have so many fond memories of our teachers who did in some way or the other contribute to us becoming what we are today. They molded us into individuals to face the world and situations.

I came across a quote somewhere which went something like, “Every situation we face is a learning experience and every person we come across is our teacher.

In every walk of our life we have come across people who have taught us something. Some by giving up a pep and support when it was needed and some who let me down in the worst crucial moments of my life.

Let us always remember with gratitude that, “I do not completely make myself, God makes me, using many others.” I end with the beautiful lyrics of the Bette Midler song ‘Wind Beneath My Wings’ which is apt for everyone who has ever taught us:

…Did you ever know that you’re my hero,
and everything I would like to be?
I can fly higher than an eagle,
for you are the wind beneath my wings.

It might have appeared to go unnoticed,
but I’ve got it all here in my heart.
I want you to know I know the truth, of course I know it.
I would be nothing without you…

…fly high against the sky,
so high I almost touch the sky.
Thank you, thank you,

I thank God for you my teacher , the wind beneath my wings.

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

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The Martyrdom of Karbala and our ‘Attitudes’

Don’t waste your time chasing things that will never be beneficial to your future.

………..April Mae Monterrosa

But the moot point is – How do we conceive our future – the materialistic future or the spiritual one?

If you are sitting with a religious zealot without a rational attitude, he would advocate a future in Black and White. All sermons and advice would he shower about the nothingness and emptiness of this world and promises of heaven where you might be allowed many of the luxuries (of course chaste and pristine) that you have been looking in this world and didn’t enjoy. May be he would enlighten with the verses of the Holy Book and Holy Traditions like the following:

Surah At – Takathur, 102:1-8
(In the name of Allah – the most Beneficent, the most Merciful)

  1. You are obsessed by greed for more and more.
  2. Until you go down to your graves.
  3. Nay, in time you will come to understand!
  4. And once again: Nay, in time you will come to understand!
  5. Nay, if you could but understand (it) with an understanding (born) of certainty,
  6. you would indeed, most surely, behold the blazing fire (of hell)!
  7. In the end you will indeed, most surely, behold it with the eye of certainty:
  8. and on that Day you will most surely be called to account for (what you did with) the boon of life!

And for an unripe mind, it leads to a thought of giving up all the attractions, magical spells and allurement of this world. And the next streak leads to ASCETISM – the renouncing of this world.

Does the religion of Islam demand that situation?

Indubitably, we as Muslims have a clear purpose in our lives and that is to earn the pleasure of our Creator. The positive feelings such as inner peace, joy, gratitude and hope all devolve around that very concept.

“And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).”

The Holy Quran Chapter 51:56

This Surah is one of the most powerful and prophetic passages of the Qur’an. It illuminates man’s unbounded greed and tendencies which have come to dominate our societies. We jump with indiscrete to increase in benefits, be they tangible or intangible, real or illusory. It denotes man’s obsessive striving for more and more comforts, more material goods, greater power over his fellow-men or over nature, and unceasing technological progress.

However, it is imperative here to understand the concept of worship. As we understand, the worship of God is not only ritualistic akin to some choreographed acts of gymnastic. Worship of Almighty includes seeking knowledge, fulfilling the family, social, political and state responsibilities, helping others and performing the regular prayer rituals. And to conform to all those duties, tasks and avocations one has to wade through the rough and tough of hard practical life with all its pathos and privations.

The Holy Quran Chapter 67:2

“And We have not created the heaven and earth and what is between them in vain. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve. And woe to such disbelievers, because of the Fire. Shall we treat those who believe and do good deeds as those who spread corruption on the earth? Or shall we treat the pious as sinners?”

Allah wants us to perform good deeds and be honest. Corruption and Islam can never go parallel. We have to strive to do hundred percent justice to all the activities which are entrusted to us. And to perform good deeds we have to be both materialistic and spiritual. Islam proscribes and prohibits ‘asceticism.’ While the religion wants us to live within our means and be content with the modicum of comforts, it exhorts to improve our economic and social conditions by all fair means.

The conventional wisdom suggests that a materialist wants to change the present for a better future. He deals with the unpleasantness of life with intelligent and self-willed efforts and works hard to attain a standard happy life and prosperous life by creating conditions within himself and his environment. He goes by his past experiences and relies upon his strengths and abilities to safeguard his / her interests. While doing all that he prays the Supreme Authority for a positive response.

The problem with the so called-religious-spiritual zealot is that he thinks more about the rituals and prayers and feels that spending most of the time in these activities would entitle him for Allah happiness. He inadvertently ignores his family, social, economic and educational tasks and indulges in the practices that relate to outward show of sainthood and religious paraphernalia. Those errands and engagements hardly make any difference in his attitudes and dealings. On the contrary, this kind of excessive devotion leads to PRIDE in one’s own piousness and importance which is not what the Islam expects.

From an ordinary Muslim, Islam expects the golden mean where there is fine balance in his spiritual activities and his professional responsibilities. The true worship is if we are honest in all the dealings of life; if we lead a simple life without conceit and arrogance; if we take care of our social responsibilities as a good citizen; if we’re to ready to allow our resources to be availed by our needy neighbours; if we give real respect to our elders and lead a life without hate and work hard for a better tomorrow for us and for those who connect us.

As the famous Urdu poet Jigar Moradabadi has said:

“Mehav-E-Tasbeeh To Sab Hain, Magar Idraak Kahan,
Zindagi Khud Hi Ibadat Hai,…….. Magar Hosh Nahi.”


Most of us busy with the prayer string beads without knowing the Real Truth. Are We but conscious and aware that all the activities of our (honest and diligently lived) LIFE itself are PRAYER….Nay, but we are not sentient!

A few weeks later the Mourning Period of Moharrum is approaching when we would recall and remember the Martyrdom of Karbala. I believe the best tribute of Imam Hussain (AS) and his mission would be to fulfill all the responsibilities of life, especially for the youth, to spend time in their studies along with the traditional rituals and prayers in just proportion. The Holy Imam would also never approve our display of wealth, pomp and power in his name. He would love to see his followers taking lead in the world in all positive fields. He would love to see the youth engaged in activities that would enhance their character. Wasting time is never part of worship or mourning of martyrs of Karbala!

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

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Overt Show of Rituals,Traditions and Absence of Essence Is Failing Us

I’m not a religious scholar and I don’t want to be one. ‘Religion,’ to me, is a very personal matter.

RELIGIONES

RELIGIONES

It was not my choice to be born in a certain family and I’ve not studied enough to go through all contemporary religions to make a choice once again. What I am as in my birth certificate is the description of an accident of birth. Today if I’m to explore the deeper truths of creation and existence, one life or several lives won’t suffice to find the ultimate truth. So, I’m contended with the set of beliefs I’ve received from my parents, relatives, neighborhood and the society I lived in. Good luck to deeply religious, passionate and sincere souls and no argument with those who believe otherwise. Everyone has to bear his own cross. I’m what I’m.

I know the religion sometimes motivates people to do good things, but that is far outweighed by the misery, death, and divisiveness produced by religions since it arose thousands of years ago. It was religion that crucified (or seemingly) Jesus and it was also religion that caused the martyrdom of KARBALA. Whose faith was the ‘force of good’ and who was following SATAN is an argument that is pregnant with the side you stand, by choice or accident of birth. And certainly, the argument continues. It is the religion that is causing bombs to explode in mosques, imambargahs and hospitals and it is religion that is dividing one human being from others. So, could we simply say – Religion is the cause, reason and effect of the negative developments today or yesterday or yonder?

No sir!

The beneficial effects of religion far outweigh the negatives it has caused. Let me be honest – I’ve no airtight case for it. If you look around, you will find that religion does indeed motivate people to do good things. If you can get people to behave better by making them believe in things that inspire them you are on the right track. You may call it religion. Isn’t better to base your actions and philosophy on things you know? That defines your background. For if you participate in good deeds because your trust in a faith and you think that this is what God wants, you’re a happy and contended man and in hopes of having a nice afterlife.

But many are not gifted with that deep, unshakable resolution. They are the victim of Universal Sense of CURIOSITY. It is often the scientific penchant for wanting to know what’s true that makes one an atheist. It is what challenges the basics of life. Here are two diametrically opposite opinions:

Anon: “There can never be a conflict between true science and true religion, because they both describe reality.” Excerpt from a posting to a religious mailing list.

Peter Atkins: “Science is almost totally incompatible with religion.”

While, religious wars, barbarism, coercion, discrimination and nepotism, desire to subjugate fellow human beings and lord over others point towards the flip side of religion, the good side is that religion promotes charity, altruism, compassion, discipline and total surrender to Universal Power who is always RIGHT and that has been given different names.

With religions come the religious books and faith-soaked literature that wield their long term and short-term effects. One can’t dare to question the claims of Holy Literature. Religion is out domain of criticism. The society and religion are too powerful to crush the dissent in any form slowly and surely without much ado. Religion, as a system of dictatorship was seen when Popes had total control over the lives of their subjects and the Arab countries where even today they exploit religion and religious book to perpetuate their cruel dynastic rules. Egypt, once a cradle of Islam, the oldest seat of religion is the latest example of failed understanding or no understanding of religion. There is bloodshed and death on either side of river Nile.

But, on the other side, if one goes to an Utopian society where all the better rules could prevail without religion, you would end up in a desert where even the psychological palliation is not available when you are in doldrums. All new ISMS have flopped. The best examples were the worsening social, economic and political conditions of Communist, Scandinavia and Western European countries that had, by and large, rejected religion but were certainly no better or worse as societies than the highly religious states.

One can’t deny, if you’re not a religious zealot that secularist societies in the West have often shown, in 20 the century more “well being” than religious ones. This reflects a negative correlation between the religiosity of a country and its well being. The sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East are places where many countries are both highly religious and deeply dysfunctional.

Let us go back to the fundamental question – What is religion and why do we need it?

“Religion is a divine law that enables people with intelligence to attain goodness and happiness in this world and the next with their own desire.”

Here I am quoting some lines of Albert Einstein. The following article by Albert Einstein was appeared in the New York Times Magazine on November 9, 1930 pp 1-4.

Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand spiritual movements and their development.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

A little consideration will suffice to show us that the most varying emotions preside over the birth of religious thought and experience. With primitive man it is above all fear that evokes religious notions – fear of hunger, wild beasts, sickness, death. Since at this stage of existence understanding of causal connections is usually poorly developed, the human mind creates illusory beings more or less analogous to itself on whose wills and actions these fearful happenings depend. Thus one tries to secure the favor of these beings by carrying out actions and offering sacrifices which, according to the tradition handed down from generation to generation, propitiate them or make them well disposed toward a mortal. In this sense I am speaking of a religion of fear. This, though not created, is in an important degree stabilized by the formation of a special priestly caste which sets itself up as a mediator between the people and the beings they fear, and erects a hegemony on this basis. In many cases a leader or ruler or a privileged class whose position rests on other factors combines priestly functions with its secular authority in order to make the latter more secure; or the political rulers and the priestly caste make common cause in their own interests.

The social impulses are another source of the crystallization of religion. Fathers and mothers and the leaders of larger human communities are mortal and fallible. The desire for guidance, love, and support prompts men to form the social or moral conception of God. This is the God of Providence, who protects, disposes, rewards, and punishes; the God who, according to the limits of the believer’s outlook, loves and cherishes the life of the tribe or of the human race, or even or life itself; the comforter in sorrow and unsatisfied longing; he who preserves the souls of the dead. This is the social or moral conception of God.

The Jewish scriptures admirably illustrate the development from the religion of fear to moral religion, a development continued in the New Testament. The religions of all civilized peoples, especially the peoples of the Orient, are primarily moral religions. The development from a religion of fear to moral religion is a great step in peoples’ lives. And yet, that primitive religions are based entirely on fear and the religions of civilized peoples purely on morality is a prejudice against which we must be on our guard. The truth is that all religions are a varying blend of both types, with this differentiation: that on the higher levels of social life the religion of morality predominates.
Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it.

We thus arrive at a conception of the relation of science to religion very different from the usual one. When one views the matter historically, one is inclined to look upon science and religion as irreconcilable antagonists, and for a very obvious reason. The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the idea of a being who interferes in the course of events – provided, of course, that he takes the hypothesis of causality really seriously. He has no use for the religion of fear and equally little for social or moral religion. A God who rewards and punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man’s actions are determined by necessity, external and internal, so that in God’s eyes he cannot be responsible, any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it undergoes. Science has therefore been charged with undermining morality, but the charge is unjust. A man’s ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy, education, and social ties and needs; no religious basis is necessary. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hopes of reward after death.

It is therefore easy to see why the churches have always fought science and persecuted its devotees. On the other hand, I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research.

Let us move to the works of another famous philosopher Bertrand Russell.

Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell

The Wikipedia article on Russell describes his view on religion as agnostic or atheist, concluding: “For most of his adult life, Russell maintained that religion is little more than superstition and, despite any positive effects that religion might have, it is largely harmful to people. He believed that religion and the religious outlook serve to impede knowledge and foster fear and dependency, and are responsible for much of our world’s wars, oppression, and misery.

He was often asked the question of whether he was agnostic or atheist. In his replies he typically said that he was an agnostic. I think the reason for that was that he had very high standards for knowledge. The atheist would be someone who claims to know there is no God. That for Russell would require a proof. He always said he denied that he could prove that God didn’t exist, but he thought that there was no evidence whatsoever to support the view that God did exist.

Russell did think that religion was responsible for a great deal of harm. He was acutely aware of historical religious wars, he was acutely aware of religious oppression, of the horrors of the inquisition and the ongoing horrors of religious oppression in everyday life. He was living in the 1920s and 30s when religion was in retreat but it still had a very substantial hold on people’s lives, especially on matters of sexual morality that he was concerned with.

From Bertrand Russell we switch over to our own backyard. According to the second Indian President, scholar and philosopher Dr Radha Krishnan, life of strenuous endeavor for human betterment is not possible, if we are not persuaded that life has a meaning. Many of our popular writers today seem to be possessed by the one desire to escape from the world of meaning and teach us the essential purposelessness of life. They make us believe, with a good deal of cleverness and sophistry, that life is infinitely complicated and totally inexplicable. Many of our students are taught to assume that free-will and personal responsibility are illusions, that human beings are conditioned almost wholly by their physical make-up and the society in which they live, and that the only sense that the religious statements make is emotional and subjective. This is a generation which knows how to doubt but not how to admire, much less to believe. This aimlessness, this indifference to basic issues, is to no small extent, responsible for the decline of standards, for the fading of ideals, for the defeat of human endeavor.

For Dr Radhakrishnan, religion was not about path to salvation.

Dr Radha Krishnan

Dr Radha Krishnan

He says, “For me the road to salvation is through incessant toil in the service of my country and humanity.” Religion is neither about set of concrete dogmas defining its identity, as he argues that “There are some things which are more important that our particularistic allegiances: truth and humanity and that universal religious consciousness which is the common possession of all human beings by virtue of their spiritual endowment. Only such recognition of universal values can secure the fate of civilization and humanity on this earth, for a ‘civilized society is possible only in an ordered community, where there is a rule of law before which the poor man and the rich, the weak nation and the strong are equal, which believes that the world belongs to all’

As a person who believed in evolution of religion according to changing times, Dr Radhakrishnan argued that there is nothing called “irreligion”. Atheism is a quest for higher religion compatible with the increased knowledge. Secularism itself is a spiritual construct. He explains: “There is no state religion. All the different forms are given equal place, provided they do not lead to corrupt practices. Each one is at liberty to approach the unseen as it suits his capacity and inclination. If this is the basis of our secular state, to be secular is not to be religiously illiterate. It is to be deeply spiritual and not narrowly religious”. Dr Radhakrishnan believed that religion and science can not only coexist but one is incomplete without the other. Acquiring knowledge involves devotion/discipline (Bhakti) and Faith (Shraddha). It must be complimented by other process like Hearing/Listening (Shravana), Reflection (Manana) and Contemplation (Nididdhyasana).

Today, many of the thinkers blame Islam’s indifference rather its supposed hostility towards science. Let us remember that between the eighth and the 13th centuries, while Europe stumbled through the dark ages while science thrived in Islamic states. Irrespective of their style and antecedents, the Abbasid caliphs showered money on learning. The 11th century “Canon of Medicine” by Avicenna (pictured, with modern equipment he would have relished) was a standard medical text in Europe for hundreds of years. In the ninth century Muhammad al-Khwarizmi laid down the principles of algebra, a word derived from the name of his book, “Kitab al-Jabr”. Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham transformed the study of light and optics. Abu Raihan al-Biruni, a Persian, calculated the earth’s circumference to within 1%. And Muslim scholars did much to preserve the intellectual heritage of ancient Greece; centuries later it helped spark Europe’s scientific revolution. Science and Islam were compatible.

In the last few centuries, while the other Christian states compromised between religion and science, the myopic rulers or Muslim world refused to change. While the science was taking the man to moon they were fighting about the sighting of moon. It was the political attitude and ignorance of Muslim rulers and not the set of belief that brought the down fall of once leading society of the world.

According to Rana Dajani, a Jordanian molecular biologist,

Rana Dajani

Rana Dajani

The Koran is not a science textbook. It provides people with guidelines as to how they should live their lives.” Interpretations of it, she argues, can evolve with new scientific discoveries. Koranic verses about the creation of man, for example, can now be read as providing support for evolution.

To me, the spirit of religion is to serve the mankind. Unfortunately, the new movements in Islamic world are closing the windows of fresh air of thoughts. The kind of freedom that science demands is not to be found in the fanatic fringes of Muslim world. With the rise of political Islam, including dogmatic Salafists who espouse a radical version of Islam, in such important countries as Egypt, some fear that it could be eroded further still. Let us pray God that the political storms shaking the Middle East could promote not only democracy, but revive scientific freethinking also. Amen

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

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Mango cultivation in Amroha – how to increase its productivity

Amroha is the land of mangoes and carps… it looks mysterious because we couldn’t understand the relation between mangoes and carps at first instance. Although Amroha is an ancient place and has rich history but its cultural revolution taken place in medieval times when Hazrat Syed Sharfuddin Shahwilayat (ra) reached Amroha. He came from Middle East (Iraq) and instructed (as per folks) that you should go to the place and reside there where you will find mangoes and carps (rohu fish). No doubt that he came across many towns and cities before reaching Amroha which surely have carps and mangoes because in north India you can find mango and rohu fish at almost every place from Lahore to Punjab to Amroha. Aam and rohu is very common to most of the towns if not all. So why he choose only Amroha to live?. Surely there might be some other reasons against this common belief to reside in Amroha but this is still a mystery and we will speculate it in future inshallah . Whatever is the reason but now Amroha is famous for mangoes. So this article is written for mango cultivators of Amroha (recommendations are general which can be follow at any place in northern India). About carps we will discuss in some other articles.

Centuries old culture of mango cultivation in Amroha
Amroha has more than 100 types of descripted and non-descripted varieties of mangoes, so its diversity is very high which make Amroha unique place for mangoes. There are so many fruits in the world but no other fruit has same value as that of mango. Some people called it King of Fruits (phalo ka raja). As per my opinion it is absolutely true and it has some uniqueness and that uniqueness is hidden in its diversity. Now see this, you eat apple it has same taste whether it is Himachali, Kashmiri or from United Kingdom, same is true for litchi, chiku or grapes. But when you eat dusseri you will have absolutely different taste sensation than landga or chaunsa. Although all are mangoes having same physiology but taste is different and no mango is superior to other on the basis of taste. All are equally well and I love this variation. Let us have a look for its commercial value and how we can improve the productivity.
Why I am sharing this knowledge – saving mango orchards – a tribute to my father
My farther also loved mangoes and he had taken orchards on rent during mango blossoming seasons. I loved to went those orchards along with him on cycle (not less than 15 Km from my home). He had passion for mangoes, although he hardly made any profits out of it but even then he always taken mango orchards on rent and use to live there in the nights. He taught me many practical things about mangoes like how to recognize variety by looking its shape and size. I was hardly 9 or 10 years old. He suffered huge losses and my mother scolded him for wasting money year after year. I wish I could help him to increase the productivity and help him to save his money with my knowledge, but he is not present today to take my help. But I want to reduce sufferings of farmers who are passing through same situations.
Mangoes – Brief account on its present status in India
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the choicest fruit of India in terms of not only production but also economic importance and acceptability by the consumers. It is grown in around 87 countries in the world but nowhere it is as greatly valued as in India where it covers around 36 per cent of total fruits growing area. Owing to delicious taste, succulence type and exotic flavour it enjoys the same popularity in the tropics as apple in the temperate region. India is the largest producer of choice table varieties of mango in the world. More than 1000 mango varieties are under cultivation in India, each differing in shape, size and taste. But the production share of mango in India is quite low (20.3%) with total annual production of only 15.19 million tons due to low productivity (6.6 tonnes/ha). Despite India has got excellent export mango varieties (Dashehari, grown in northern India, Alphonso and Kesar in western India and krishnabhog, Gulabkhas and Himsagar in  eastern India) it occupies just fourth position in mango export market of the world with Philippines being the first.
Among the different factors responsible for low productivity and low export potentiality,physiological disorders associated with mango is one of the main factor which affects mango cultivation at all stages, right from the plants in the nursery to the fruits in storage or transit. These physiological disorders not only reduce the production efficiency of the tree but also hamper the fruit quality which is the key factor for export, resulting huge economic losses to the growers every year. Therefore, to obtain higher mango production with better quality, utmost attention must be given to solve the problems of physiological disorders.
Details of different physiological disorders along with their management strategies are as follows:
 
Alternate Bearing: it means trees give fruits every third year (first, third, fifth like this) This is one of the most burning problems of mango cultivation as it renders mango cultivation less remunerative to growers. It causes huge economic burden over farmers and they suffer losses in the form of land depreciation and product stagnancy.
 It signifies the tendency of mango trees to bear a heavy crop in one year (on year) and very little or no crop in the succeeding year (off year). Most of the commercial varieties of north India, namely, Dashehari, Langra and Chausa are alternate bearers.
 
Reason: Generally mango trees when laden with fruits, they do not produce new shoots. Even after harvesting, if new shoots are produced, they are negligible in number and do not flower in the coming year because new vegetative flush of mango required a certain amount of maturity (8-10 months) for flower bud differentiation.
It can be understand; first year it flowers and gives fruits à in second year new shoots will be seen in march April à then in third years it fruits again.
Moreover, when a tree produces heavy crop in one season, it gets nutritionally exhausted failing to yield in following season. Besides climatic factors, C/N (carbohydrate/nitrogen) ratio and hormonal imbalance also play vital role to cause alteration in bearing in mango.
Management Strategies
 
·      Paclobutrazol (PP333) @ 4 g/tree as soil and foliar spray in September results early maturation of vegetative flush and commencement of flowering in the following year.
·         Deblossoming of some ‘on year’ flowers and pruning (selective removal of parts of a plant, such as branches, buds,) of the tree just after harvesting will maintain proper physiological balance  between vegetative and reproductive growth and permit ample amount of sunlight to reach the inner area of the orchard resulting in better performance of the tree every year. Moreover pruning also helps to produce some new shoots just after harvesting which may mature in the next flowering season.
·         Flowering in ‘off’ year’ can also be induced by smudging. Smudging in mango is carried out by building slow fires, emitting smoke under mango tree. Similarly, application of Ethrel can also induce flowering.
·         Growers who are in primitive stage of mango cultivation can select cultivars like Amrapali, Mallika, Ratna, Dashehari-51, Pusa Arunima, Pusa Shrestha, Pusa Pitambar, Pusa Lalima, Pusa Pratibha, Arka Anmol, Arka Aruna, Arka Puneet, Arka Neelkiran for commercial cultivation as they are regular bearing in nature. Rejuvenation of old mango tree by grafting or budding with regular bearing varieties are also recommended to convert the alternate bearing habit into regular one.
Mango Malformation: It means improper shape and size of mango which render it less attractive and poor economic value. During last few decades farmers particularly in northern India facing huge problem due to this disorder. Although, it was first observed in 1891 in Bihar but now it is an alarming threat in Punjab, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.
It is mainly of two types: vegetative and floral.
Vegetative malformation is more common in nursery seedling and in young plants. Malformed vegetative shoots assume the appearance of bunchy top with narrow scaly leaves. Vegetative buds growing in cluster, swells and losses the apical dominance. Almost all the commercial mango cultivars like Bombay Green, Dashehari, Lucknow Safeda and Chausa show huge susceptibility to this malady, however the cultivar Baramasi is less affected. Cultivars like Ellaichi, Alib and Bhadauran are totally free from this disorder but their fruit quality being not superior; their use is limited to only for resistant breeding not for commercial cultivation. Scientist from different part of the country reported that a  fungi- Fusarium moniliformae var. subglutinans is highly associated with this disorder. Temperature range of 21-27°C (max.) and 8°C (min.) along with relative humidity of 85% during late winter or early spring is conducive for the growth of the fungi, resulting severe incidence of malformation on newly emerged panicles.
Management Strategies:
 
·         Application of NAA/ Planofix (200ppm) during October, prior to fruit bud differentiation followed by de-bloosming of newly emerged panicles or bud during January- February is beneficial to control the disorder.
·         Spraying of different phenolic compounds like catecal, cynamic acid, tannic acid during 1st week ofOctober at 2000 ppm is equally effective in reducing floral malformation.
·         Several anti-malformins have been suggested for beneficial results when sprayed on panicles just after emergence (4-6 cm). Sprays of glutathione at 2250 ppm, ascorbic acid at 2110 ppm, AgNO3 at 600 ppm have also been found effective to control the malformation.
·         Application of nutrients likes P & K and micronutrients especially Zn & B just after harvesting are quite effective in reducing the incidence of malformation. Application of moderate amount of N helped to minimize the vegetative malformation while Zn and B helped in biosynthesis of auxins which ultimately helps to reduce the incidence of mango malformation.
·         Removal of just emerged malformed panicles or vegetative shoots at a distance of 15-20 cm below the point of occurrence is beneficial to minimize the spread of disorder further.
Black Tip: This malady is widely prevalent in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. It causes considerable economic losses to the growers. Among the commercial cultivars, Dashehari is the highly susceptible one, while Lucknow Safeda is the least. This disorder has mainly detected in orchards located in the vicinity of brick kilns. Gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ethylene constituting the fumes of brick kiln, damage growing tip of fruits and give rise to the symptoms of black tip.
Management Strategies
 
·         Establishment of the orchards away from brick kiln by at least 1.6 km in east to west and 0.8 km in north to south direction and increasing the chimney height to at least 15- 18 metres can be preventive measures for this malady.
·         Spray 1 per cent borax (10g/lit) thrice first before flowering, second during flowering and third at fruit set stage is very effective. Moreover, spraying of other alkaline solutions like caustic soda (0.8%) orwashing soda (0.5%) at pea stage followed by two more sprays at 15 days interval may neutralize the acidic fumes of brick kilns, precipitating on the tip of the fruits.
Spongy Tissue: This is caused because ripening enzymes during fruit maturation stage become inactive due to high temperature, convective heat and post harvest exposure of fruit to sunlight which results in the development of non-edible, sour, yellowish and sponge like patch with or without air pocket in the mesocarp of the fruit during ripening. In extreme cases, the whole fleshy portion becomes too soft resembling bacterial rot.
·         Harvesting of fruits at 3/4th maturity stage and post harvest exposure to low temperatures between 10-150C for 10-18 hrs has been beneficial in reducing the disorder.
·         Sod culture with Eragrostis (Spartina) cynosuroides, cover cropping etc. should be used in the orchard to reduce direct heat radiation from soil which ultimately minimizes the raise of convective heat from the ground.
·         Use of black poly-ethylene mulch is recommended for spongy tissue prone orchards.
·         Resistant varieties for new cultivators like Ratna, Arka Puneet, Arka Aruna which have Alphonso  like character should be planted in the orchard.
Fruit Drop: Despite initial high fruit set, the ultimate retention is quite low in mango (only 0.1% perfect flowers develop fruit to maturity). The intensity of fruit drop varies from variety to variety. Among the commercially grown varieties, Langra is more susceptible to drop while Dashehari is the least. Fruit drop in mango is classified into three groups: (i) Pinhead drop, (ii) Post setting drop and (iii) pre-harvest drop (May drop).
The first two drops causes less economic losses to the growers but the third group is most destructive and cause huge economic losses to the growers as the fruits totally drop down at pre-harvesting stage.
Management Strategies
·         The extent of fruit drop in mango can be significantly reduced by regular and frequent irrigationsduring the entire fruit developmental period.
·         Orchards should be protected from desiccating winds (Andhi) by planting wind breaks.
·         Timely and effective control measures against major pests and diseases should be adopted.
·         Growth regulators like NAA and 2,4-D in varying concentration depending upon the variety and time of application can be sprayed. The optimum concentration lies between 10- 15 ppm during the month of April-May.
Clustering (Jhumka): It implies the development of fruits in clusters at the tip of the panicles (A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence). Such fruits do not grow beyond pea or marble stage and drop down after a month of fruit set. Mainly it is due to lack of pollination / fertilizationwhich may be attributed to many reasons such as the absence of sufficient population of pollinators in the orchards (lower bee and butterfly population), indiscriminate spray of pesticides during flowering,spraying of synthetic pyrethroids, monoculture and bad weather during flowering.
Management Strategies:
 
·         Spraying of pesticides during flowering should be avoided. Apart from this, monoculture in the orchard should be avoided by planting at least 5-6 per cent of other cultivars in new plantations.
·         Introduction of beehives in the orchards during flowering season for increasing the number of pollinators.
Internal Fruit Necrosis: It is characterized by the appearance of dark green colour in lower half of the fruit followed by browning of the seed and mesocarp which ultimately turned into brown black necrotic lesion. It is mainly due to boron deficiency.
Internal fruit necrosis
Management Strategies
 
This disorder can be corrected by soil or foliar application of boron. For soil application, Borax @ 500 g per tree should be incorporated at the time of October fertilization. Foliar application of 1 % borax is recommended at the time of fruit set (pea size stage) followed by two more sprays at 10-15 days interval which will minimize the disorder to a great extent.
Leaf scorching in mango: The characteristic symptom is akin to that of potash deficiency i.e.scorching of old leaves at the tips or margins. The leaves fall down and consequently, the tree vigour and yield is reduced. It is mainly due to excess of chloride ions which render potash unavailability. This disorder is more common in saline soils or where brackish water is available for irrigation or where muriate of potash is used as a fertilizer to meet the potash requirement of the plants.
Management Strategies
 
·         It can be checked effectively by collecting and burning the fallen leaves and using potassium sulphate instead of muriate of potash.
·         Acute condition can be cured by 4-5 foliar applications of potassium sulphate on newly emerged flushes at fortnightly intervals.

 

Conclusion: Among all the physiological disorders associated with mango, none is due to a single factor but all are due to the amalgamation of several factors like genetic factors, environmental factors, nutritional imbalance, poor cultural practices in the orchard, etc. So, it is very difficult bring a affected orchard into a healthy orchard in a single step within one or two years. But proper cultural and management practices like application of required fertilizers at proper stage, pruning of some old branches just after harvesting, debloosming of some flower buds during February-March,application of recommended plant growth regulators at proper stage etc. can prevent the disorders to a large extent.

As the Candle Burns

Part – 1

Our’s was not such an advance society but we were a mixed gathering usually consisted juniors and seniors of all ages of our mohalla and used to sit together and enjoy under the shadows of Neem and Pilkhan trees that had survived the edge of blade. While senior ladies were there as guardians, our old men avoided such flirtations of joviality and preferred to inhabit the ‘Dewankhanas’ with hubble bubble in their free time. All used to enjoy the ropes and swings in spring as the pleasant breeze blew and forced the branches of Pilkhan and Neem trees to dance in all gyrations.


It was pleasant day of a festival and we were enjoying our own chorus of folk songs meant for the occasion. Good singer among us were valued but quality of singing was not the strict standard.  Fruit buds of Pilkhan, known as ‘Tushtis’ were dropping from the tree as the wind blew. Some of these tushtis made a wafting fall from the tree and landed at the tress of Zahabiya’s head and got entangled in the cascade of her auburn hair. Standing a short distance, a handsome boy Yavar gathered the instant courage and showed the audacity to brush them off from her hair before the full view with his shivering hand. Zahabiya didn’t take umbrage against this acts of valor and the first arrow of Cupid struck the right place. For months Yavar was finding himself innocently and emotionally attracted toward the girl as she rolled the Bidis from the bamboo platter known as Soof. Yavar considered it was the most beautiful frame of ‘beauty in action’ that he could ever capture upon earth. Liberty had its limits and it was not expected or accepted to express the feeling in a romantic prelude. All nuptial matters were the sole prerogatives of elders.

Zahabiya hated the smell of smoke and abhorred the smokers style also. She often looked up at the sky with hope and prayer that one day Allah would ask someone to remove this platter from her lap, full of scorching tobacco and green leaves which would pile up before her everyday to make a living.

Part – 2

The Clock Tower is one that doesn’t sleep. Three bells rang and echoed about in the overwhelming solitude of darkness. For Yavar sleep was a commodity snatched away from him for weeks. The marriage celebration in the ‘Upper Hill’ was slowly acquiring low decibels and tired participants were also falling sleep. Few stray shouts, low tide laughs and falling of some utensils could only be heard.

He got up from his bed and set down on a wooden platform, his elbows resting at his knees and his lopping head tumbled on the parallel palms, his fingers wide splayed and inserted into the strings of his disheveled hair. His eyes were shut and he was looking at the floor in the dark.

Someone placed a hand with a soft touch. Mom was standing before him. “Yaver try to sleep and let others also sleep. More than half of the night is already passed.” Request, concern and command of a mother all rolled into an appeal of love. She gave a glass of water and asked him to drink. Yavar took the water and poured into his mouth, half falling on his shirt and rest spilling over his mouth and some of it going into his throat straight. He begged mother to sit down.

“Ma…”
“Yes Yavar….”
“Have I ever been disrespectful to you ?”
“Who said that ? No.”
“Have I ever been hard upon you ? Have I ever been unkind with you ?”
“Never.”
“Were you not the one who loved me the most after my God. Were you not the one who had sacrificed her youth to bring us up after father’s death ?”
“It was my duty.”
“Were you not the kindest of mother upon earth ?”
“I don’t know.”
“I know it mother. Then why did you inflict the sharpest of the cut upon the sapling you had planted ?”
She pulled his head to her bosom and kissed his cheek.
“Yavar..”
“Yes mom…”
“Do you believe in religion?
“Yes mom….but not much as you do. Of course I’m a believer.”
“The Holy Book says you must obey your parents’ the holy traditions say that marriage is always suitable in the families of HUM KUFF.”
“What does Hum Kuff mean mom ?”
“It means equality in status of both the families who are joining in marriage. I know more of this world than you know. I know what is good for you and what is bad. My hair has not turned grey in the sun. I can’t allow my son to marry a girl which would be a stigma for the grace for a family I’d sacrificed my everything.”
“But Zahabiya is one of us mom. Her family is related to us. Zahabiya is not a loose character mom.”
“Did I say that? I know his father was a senior officer when he prematurely died of heart attack. Her mom messed up everything including the name and left-over fortunes. Now she is not respected in the company of Bidi winders of Bidi rollers. I didn’t compromise with the family honor when your father died. I went door to door and asked if someone wanted the kids to learn Quran. I maintained my dignity and brought up you all in toughest times.”

“Mom…”
“Yes Yaver……”
“But is was none of Zahabiya’s fault.”
“In our society faults percolated down the generations and I’d not designed this society.”
“Mom, you knew I loved Zahabiya. I promised you that I shall help their whole family to rise up. Mom…a rising tide raises all boats. I’d promised you that I would be that rising tide.”
“Yaver, a rising tide brings back a lot of silt and garbage also. You are still immature, inexperienced and innocent. In your age love is a passing emotion of the weak, a misguided spell, an ephemeral idea. And now what is left to discuss ? She is going to Pakistan on Thursday. Today MEHNDI and RATJAGA (celebration before the wedding night) both are over.”
‘Mom…”
“Yes Yaver……”
“I still love Zahabiya…”
“Your love would be a sin from tomorrow once she is tied in religion with her husband.”
“Mom…”
“Yes Yave….”
“Pious love could never be a sin mom.”
“There is no any such thing as pious love between the man and women if they are not related by blood and still…………”

“But mom, once you also liked Zahabiya”
“Liking doesn’t mean that I would invite her to be my daughter- in- law. I like Taj Mahal but it doesn’t mean that I want my grave to be there in it.”
She wiped the tears from Yavar’s eye with her dopatta and kissed again the face of her son.
“Mom…”
“Yes Yavar….”
“Zahabiya is poor but she is elegant, she is different, she is respected by everyone.”
“It is a cliché now. Now she is getting married to a very good boy from our own relations. The boy is a good employee in a big company in Karachi. Oh God I’m so thankful to you as you have managed the situation for everyone’s satisfaction. Not for nothing the seniors of the family are loved and respected for their sagacity and wisdom, their powers of command and their farsightedness. Now you have not to worry about her future. She would have all the comforts. Happy Life & Safe Distance.”

“Mom…”
“Yes yaver….”
“You were never that cruel.”
“I’m still unknown to the word ‘cruelty.’
“Than what its mom ?”
“Discretion…which is always the better part of valour.”
“Mom it was my life and I were to live with her.”
‘But it was your life, with God’s grace, I’d given to you.”

The sound of Express Train passing over the River Soat bombed the discussion. It trundled past over the bridge and Yavar recalled the night when in his childhood the same sound had disturbed him and asked his father as to why the sound becomes so intense when the trains passes over the bridge. It was silence after the noise now receded and gone. But now there was again a emotional atom bomb that exploded between mother and son.

Someone in the neighborhood was begging to join for the last GHAZAL of the night.
“Get up babies, just one last song and then there would be the Azan (Morning Prayer) time….I’m making the nice tea with cardamom and mint.”
The host organizer was no other than Zahabiya’s mother. Yaver and mother were silent and now they could listen the chorus.

“Jo dil ke pas hote hain woh kaheen jaya naheen karte,
Mohabbat karne wale ghum se ghabraya naheen karte…”

Those who are near to heart they never disappear, those who love, sorrows make them never fear. Each and every line of Ghazal was repeated again. It was the third time that the rendition of the same ghazal was done in the wedding house.
‘Yaver…”
“Yes Mom……”
‘It is time to pray. Go to mosque.”
‘Yes Mom….”

Everyone in the house was sleeping when he returned from the prayers. This morning he just recited the Arabic in silence. He didn’t ask God for anything. He went to his room and after some time the sleep visited him.

Part – 3

Around 10 A.M. Abiha, his cousin sister and friend stepped into his room. She was 5 autmuns senior to him. She sat down on the chair lying next to his bed. She put her hand at his forehead. It was wet with sweat. The warmth of fingers were known to Yaver. He put hands over her ringed fingers.

“Baji…”
“Yes Yaver….”
“I’d never bargained for it.”
“All that happens, happens for the best Yavar.”
“No baji, is there still a way to invent and apply the time machine ?”
“No Yavar. Our society is too powerful, our parents are too strong and our guardians are too strict.”
“Baji….”
“Yes Yavar…”
“Zahabiya will go Pakistan on Thursday ?”
“Yes Yavar.”
“What is the day today ?”
“Tuesday…”
“Baji..”
“She has never read Urdu. She speaks Urdu but she writes Hindi.”
“She is not going to write you a letter Yavar…”
“Yes Baji…..’
“Tempus fugit…”
“Time flows Yavar. Did you listen the last song of the night ?”
“Yes baji. It was a message for you that Zahabiya had requested her mother to convey through ghazal. Life is the precious gift of God. You are not allowed to destroy it for the sake of one girl.

Meanwhile, Yaver’s mother entered in a delicate gait. She took another chair and sat down.
Both the children got up in respect and sat down after salams.
“yavar…”
“Yes mom….”
‘I’ve sent a telegram to your uncle that you are coming to Bombay.”
“Yes mom….”
“You go by the earliest train from here for Delhi and from Delhi you can a catch an early flight. The ticket is only Rs 440 /-.”
“Yes Mom.”
“All the items and clothes you need are packed. I’ve talked your boss. He has asked you to report after a fortnight.”
‘Yes mom.”

When the breakfast was over, one could hear the trot of a horse. A tonga reported at the door for station. Someone put his bag and suitcase in the carriage. He looked around his house. He felt he was deserting a poor old friend. Here, when the going was good, Zahabiya used to visit often; here just under the Jamun tree she had looked into her eyes and felt their transparence; here when the going was good between the two families, Zahabiya’s father was still alive they had taken dinners together. Here just next to rose bushes he remembered Zahabia curled up in her father’s arm when she was a kid. Here her mother had once given the sprinkler in Zahabiya’s delicate small hands to water the plants. But it was when Zahabiya’s family was HUM KUFF, equal in status.

“Mom….”
“Yes Yavar…”
“May I go…”
“We have to tie the IMAM ZAMIN round your arm.”
“Yes Mom.” Mom tied the the cloth ribbon that had prayers for safety with some currency.
“Mom….”
“Yes Yaver…”
“You have crossed the threshold Mom !”
“No Yaver..”
“Yes Mom….”
Khuda Hafiz !”
‘Khuda Hafiz !!”

Part – 4

He stepped into the tonga. Modest preparations for Zahabiya’s Nikah were in full swing. Some kids came near the horse and one or two elderly wished him Good Bye from distance. Abiah kissed his fore head ! He embarked upon a new journey, an escape invented for him – this time the itenerary was open-ended.

It is story with vintage tag.
The End

 

Naim Naqvi

Did his graduation in Science discipline from AMU in 1972-73. He was Secretary of University Ali Society in 1970 and M.M. Hall Literary Society in early 70 's and member of Tayyabji Literary Society. Did his Diploma in Bakery Administration from HTT College Oxford Street London in 1987. Worked with National Herald - Delhi, Blitz - Bombay as Trainee Journalist and in Production Department with 'Naya Sansar Pictures' of Khwaja Ahmed Abbas at Bombay in early 70's. Traveled for study and training purposes to Germany, U.K., Switzerland, France, Dubai, Oman, AbuDhabi, Bahrain and Philepines.

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Not Merits But His Mercy

(S.Kaleem Sibtain Naqvi)

“Teri hai zameen , tera aasmaan;
Tu bada meherbaan tu bakhsheesh kar.”

As a matter of fact, the fast progress of the world made us able to perform wonderful things that were earlier far away from the possibilities and beyond our imaginations. The world has become hi’ tech and our motto has become perfectly materialistic, rooted in the marsh of real unreality.

In such a hypocritical environment of vulgar artificiality, it is of course, an uphill task to cut this Gordian knot to create a surge of searching the truth in the dormant sea of thoughts which depends upon our power of discrimination, decision, determination and dedication that will decide the fate of our final lives after death.

One of the common fact mentioned in Vedanta, Torah, Bible and Quran is that there is only the mercy of God that gives us all the blessings of merits all along our lives.
“O LORD REBUKE ME NOT IN THINE ANGER. HAVE MERCY UPON ME. O LORD, FOR I AM WEAK” (Bible,-Psalms 6-12…)

See the Gayatri Mantr which reveals that the God who created all, looks after us, removes our problems & calamities, Whose blessings give us merits is requested for mercy to make us perfect.
“OM BHORBHOWA SWAHA TATSAVITARVAREN-E-YAM DEWASS-E DHEEMAHI DHIYO-YONAH PRACHODAYA”

Now see the same in the ultimate book of knowledge- Quran in sora-e Humd “BISSMILLAH HIR REHMANIR RAHEEM. ALHAMDOLIL LAHE-E RABBIL AALAMEEM… EH-HEDE NUSSIRATAL MUSTAQEEM. SIRATAL LAZINA ANUMTA ALEHIM GHAIRIL MUGHZOOB-E-ALEHIM WA LUZ ZOALEEN”. In the name of The God, the compassionate, the merciful-praise be to Allah the Lord of the worlds… Guide us to the right path, the path of those upon whom you bestowed favours, not those who have invited Your wrath, nor those who have gone astray.

Here I would like to quote a dream of a godly man who never performed any wrong. He utilized his whole life in the worship of God. He performed all the best deeds for others. Once in dream, he visualized that after his death, the angels were taking him in the sky way where the environment was becoming more and more pleasant with comforts of sweet flowering freshness. The man was happy to think of his merits that made Heaven’s comforts for him in return but as soon as this thought came in his mind he went on realizing the change occurring in the environment that was gradually becoming unpleasant, dry and then the chilling heat and hurdles made him tired and thirsty. He requested to angels for getting rest and some water but in vain.

Slowly the heartbreaking journey had become more and more tiresome. He saw a water woman on the way and requested for some water but she demanded its cost. The man had no money, he told his problem so she asked if he had anything to give in return, but nothing he found in his hands while the thirst was breaking his breaths. Water woman advised if he give all of his merits of worship & goodness of his whole life in return, she might give half full bowl of water. When he drank it, he thought of unworthiness of his thought. He realized that all his worships were equal to the half bowl of water. He realized his wrong thinking. Almighty God had given him sweet streams, rivers & fountains, He gave him innumerable gifts in each small fraction of time. The godly man was ashamed of his mistake that he had forgotten the mercy of God, Who gave everything to him to live and enjoy, He never demanded the cost of His uncountable gifts, His mercy was unlimited. He repented on his mistake and beseeched to excuse his sin. Then the God commanded the angels again to change the direction of journey towards heaven and slowly the environment was becoming again pleasant.

The God knows all of our feelings and is the lone commander of all his created Worlds. He is all Merciful & Compassionate & all of our merits are His mercy.We have no quality of anything without His mercy.

Holy Message Of Holi

(S.Kaleem Sibtain Naqvi)

The Almighty God sent His apostles everywhere to guide the people about divine mission and to make them able to understand real and unreal, to avoid the path of sins and to follow the truth.

In Quran, sura-e-Al-anbiya He say-
“Innakum wa ma tabedoona min doonil lah-e hasabo jahannama antom laha waridoon”[97]
“You and all those that you worship besides the Almighty God shall be the fuel of Hell”

In the same sura-e-Al-anbiya it is said that the believers and followers of Almighty God do not get afraid of any horrible terror and His angels bring divine blessings for them .

now we come to self willed haughty King Harna Kashyap who once upon a time ruled over a big empire from Mool Isthan which is now called Multan(Pakistan). He was a hard-hearted and hard-headed man full of proud of power and wealth. He denied the existence of lone supreme power which is foremost and forever. He declared him the God, nobody could dare to rise against him sinful declaration due to his overcasting terror. But see the miracle of Almighty God that a divine believer of God- Prahlad was born as son of the King. Prahlad bloomed as lotus of truth over the surface of foul stinking marsh of sins.

As log as Prahlad had been growing up the King father was confused by his mysterious attitude. Harna Kashyap insisted him to accept him as God but even being a young boy he refused to accept it. Harna Kashyap punished him and tortured him repeatedly for the acceptance of his Godship. After all efforts Harna Kashyap decided to get him killed at all cost.

Harna Kashyap ordered to throw Prahlad from the peak of the mountain but supercilious King was at a loss looking him alive. He got Prahlad brutaly tortured but always ended in fiasco. Harna Kashyap discussed the matter with his sister Holika who had a satanic gift that fire would not burn her so she thought a trick to express false affection to Prahlad keeping him in her lap, meanwhile Harna Kashyap got prepared a pyre around Holika and ignited it. So the horrible fire flame were all around Holika and Prahlad. The Kind was happy that encompassing fire flames would have turned Prahlad into ashes and then he could establish Godship easily but again the result was opposite. Holika was finished and Prahlad pleasantly praying and praising the glory of One Existence having no second. Prahlad had no fear of any real unreality and its sinful phenomenal acts of falsehood. The burning of Holika became saturnalia for the people. So they celebrated it on the next day with colours as starting of the cheerful period with the victory of truth.

How could Harna Kashyap tolerate it. He was going mad of anger. He decided to kill Prahlad by his own. He was having the satanic boon that he could not be killed by any human being or animal by any weapon in neither night nor day and even inside or outside the palace. He thought him immortal God. He was gradually increasing his torments for Prahlad but again and again remained unsuccessful to defeat the truth. He was furious to kill his son Prahlad. He got him fastened with iron pillar of the exterior arch of the gate of the palace.

After a day or two when it was dawning he came to Prahlad quivering horrible sward and asked the same question “Am I not your God?” Prahlad replied- “Of course not, the Parmatma who created the Earth, Heavens, all in between them and you and me, He is the Almighty God of you, me and all. Harna Kashyap’s anger was beyond his control and he gave a powerful stroke of sword to cut off his head from the body but simultaneously the pillar smashed up with a dreadful sound a and creature having the human body but lion’s face and claws appeared who tore off the body of Harna Kashyap and the child was again safe and sound praising the glory of The God. That was the same day when one year earlier people celebrated the victory of divine truth with colors after conversion of Holika into ashes by fire in her pyre.

So it is the festival of victory of righteousness and divine truth over evils of phenomenal world of satanic deeds but now practically this message is being separated by super imposition of unworthy,mean and sometimes shameful malpractices in the name of Holi. Eve-teasing, alcoholism, vandalism and such other activities made us ashamed. We should not draw even a little ugly spot on the pious canvas of Holi and it should really become our spiritual, social and cultural Holi panorama of all.

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MOHAMMAD-THE GREATEST REFORMER

(S.Kaleem Sibtain Naqvi)

WO APNE FAN KI BULANDI SE KAAM LE LE GA

USE MOQAM NA DO WO KHuD MOQAM LE LE GA

There are three invisible features of the spirit of bringing about the reformation in the human beings -Love, Truth and righteousness which induce the enthusiasm for free exploration in the theme of the aim life to make a healthy society of the peoples.

The Al mighty God, Paramatma or Allah when created the universe there was no man ,no community, no religion and no language but was a divine mission around which He wanted the entire creation moves. So all of the visible and invisible perafernelia was created for the sake of foremost event of the creation of the unity of entire divine energies (noor) even before the creation of any matter. Then after Almighty God created the universe, man & communities and the languages came in existence.

The single mission behind the creation of foremost event was to let the people understand and respect the relation between the Creator and created which was called by different names in different languages in different groups of people in different eras while the lone theme of this relation was everlasting humanity for which the Creator send 1,24,000 divine messengers in all parts of the worlds leaving no space without His preachers.

Up to 7th century A.D. Arabia, the largest peninsula of the world was specially a dreadful arid desert- flotsam of most uncivilized homeless, variant idolatrous tribes as it was before the construction of Kaaba by Abraham and Ismaeel who gave the lessons of the same humanity to the people as the earlier messengers of Almighty God gave but Arabs ever discarded the Almighty God and His messengers. In the absolute darkness of illiteracy, hypocrisy & barbarism. The satanic evil spirits had pushed them into the valley of sins. Their superstition was not ready to say goodbye to their hostile and inhumane lifestyle and to accept the divine philosophy of humanity.

After a series of divine messengers, the Creator of the universe sent His foremost unity of entire divine energies in the form of Mohammad, the ultimate source of humanity and the excellent preacher of divine mission explaining the honor and glory of the relationship between Creator and created.

Hz Mohommad did know that the umbrella was of no avail anoints the thunderstorm of Arabian horrid fauxpas but he promised to make a society having high moral and spiritual values following the ideology of humanity by leaving no stone unturned for all-round upliftment of the people.

He was the son of Abdullah and Aamina bint-e-wahab and grand son of Abdul Muttalib.

He was born on 20th April 569 A.D. (17th Rabi-ul-avval) in Mecca (province Hijaz) sometime after the death of his father Abdullah.

Lady Halima Sadia requested his grand father and mother to give her the honors to look after him at her poor but disciplined rural residence to provide him healthy environment where day by day he grew up faster then others and when he was of 5 years Lady Halima brought him back to his mother as promised while he was more than her own son and daughter Sheema who immensely loved him. He married with Lady Kadija of 40 years when he was 25. On Khadija’s proposal who was a widow of a famous businessman and the daughter of a Christian learned couple. She was an excellent amalgamation of beauty and moral. Hz Mohammad died on 11th June 632 A.D. (28th Safar 11th Hijri) due to slow poison given by some enemy after the death of his wife and Uncle Abu Talib who was his guardian. There were 9 uncles of Hz. Mohammad in which Hz Abu Talib and Hz. Hamza were quite decent persons while Abu Leheb and Abu Jehel were most turbulent and hostile satanic figures who wanted to kill HZ. Mohommad.

Hazrat Mohammad was the central pivot of the mission of Almighty Creator. He was His last messenger and the greatest reformer of the worst barbarian Arabs.

Hz. Mohammad practically inculvated the theme of the aim of life and religion of humanity not only in the hearts of most uncivilized uncultured and untutored sinful Arabs but inspired whole world nearly after 600 years of Jesus Crist.

He was very simple embodiment of all perfections. He was the ultimate source of knowledge whom the Almighty Creator feeded the entire information of the universe. Whatsoever Hz. Mohammad taught to reform the turbulent people was word to word Devin revelation having authoritative proclamation. His reforming ideology to uncivilized vagrant and hostile people is a series of admonitions, instructions, and agreements and divine revelations that he addressed again and again in uncultured gatherings and assemblies. his unique reforming capacity to inculcate equality & respect, love & truth, simplicity & honest, wisdom & righteousness first inspired the transformation of few desert tribes, Mecca then all the three provinces of Arabia and even far and wide places of the world due to high morality, spirituality and socio-economical philosophy of humanity educating for the best possible uplifted of uncivilized barbarians to transform into a Nation having intellectually, spiritually and socio-economically healthy people following the ultimate simple and most easy religion of humanity.

His enemies tortured him beyond the limits but he never loss his courage to carry out the divine mission of humanity and he died in harness on Monday 11th June 632 A.D. leaving being a value oriented society (inna lillahe wo inna ilaihe rajioon).